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A Lecture about the Water Supply 
and Sewerage of San Francisco 
delivered before the Cooper Medical 
College and Lane Hospital. February 16 
1900, by Dr. Charles N. Ellinwood 




Wi l li II.I.l'S I KA TIONS OI' 

February i6, 1900 



The civilized world has awakened to the fact that a 
bountiful supply of pure water is an essential factor in 
man's existence. 

Populous cities, tribes and races of men, have, in the 
evolution of time, arisen and occupied prominent places 
in histor}' ; and their passing, leaving only dim tracings 
of their existence, has been a mystery only solved in these 
latter years by the study of disease and the triumph of 
medical science in the discovery of the causes of infection 
and the methods of its propagation and dissemination. 

We wonder in amazement that the sacrifice of so many 
millions of lives in the plague-spots of the world should 
have been repeated age after age and yet the mystery 
remain unsolved; that only to-day are man's invisible 
foes revealed and their vanquishment made possible. 

To this end a great war has been inaugurated, the 
most humane, the most comprehensive in its inception, 
the most beneficent in its results. It commands the 
alliance, offensive and defensive, of all governments and 
of every people of the world, on one side ; and on the 
other, man's destroyer, disease germs, which infest the 
atmosphere, the water and food products on which man's 
life depends, — a gigantic battle-field extending over the 
fearth's surface — a battle involvmg in its issue more lives 


than have been sacrificed in all other battles since the 
beginning of time. 

There is now an organized effort being made by an 
organized army of scientists and humanitarians of North 
America to prevent the pollution of the surface water of 
streams, rivers, and watersheds, by stopping the perni- 
cious practice of flowing sewage upon them. 

Sanitary legislation is being asked of our Government 
at Washington and also of the Government of Canada for 
the suppression of this growing evil, by which many 
thousands of lives are being sacrificed, and the gravity 
of the situation is increasing daily, even jeopardizing the 
most populous regions of the continent. 

The problem is presenting itself on a large scale at the 
present moment, by the opening of the Chicago canal, by 
which the entire sewage of that great city, thousands of 
tons daily, are carried into rivers flowing into the Missis- 
sippi River, on which great stream St. Louis and many 
other cities depend for their water supply for domestic 
and other uses. 

Millions of dollars have been spent by Chicago in the 
construction of this great sewer canal, of incalculable 
benefit undoubtedly to the denizens of Chicago, but of 
incalculable destruction to those unfortunate inhabitants 
living on the banks of the rivers receiving this pollution, 
all the way down to New Orleans. 

The State of Missouri questions the right of her 
neighbor, the State of Illinois, to send her filth down the 
stream to her, and the General Government is called upon 
to abate the nuisance. 

The same problem is being presented in nearly all the 
rivers of this continent, and also in Europe as well. 

As the population becomes more dense the pollution of 
the water by sewage increases, and those cities which are 
dependent upon rivers and public waterways for their 
supply of potable water, sufl"er from the contamination as 


a consequence. The sewage from towns, cities, camps 
and aggregations of people and of animals is the great 
factor in that virulent pollution of water, carrying with 
it the germs of disease and death. 

It is to be hoped that some efficient ways and means 
may be found to overcome this great obstacle to human 
progress and longevity. 

The organization of the American Water Works Asso- 
ciation is a very promising effort in that line of research 
and experiment. Guided by men of eminent abilities 
and philanthropic motives, it is believed that they may 
arrive at the practical solution of this great problem. 

Water, as we find it in nature, is never pure. It is con- 
taminated by impurities derived from the air in which it 
floats as cloud and through which it falls as rain, and 
from the rocks and soil over and through which it passes 
on its way to the streams; but these impurities, if unmixed 
with decay and sewage, are usually harmless to man. 

Kain water contains but a small portion of mineral 
matter with a considerable proportion of organic matter. 

Upland surface water or mountain water contains a 
much larger proportion of both mineral and organic 
matter, the mineral water differing greatly in different 
localities by reason of the varying geological formations 
of the watershed, the nature and amount of mineral 
impurities depending upon the soluble constituents of the 
rock. Shallow well water is contaminated by the great- 
est amount of impurities of both organic and inorganic 
matter, as such wells are dug for convenience near the 
dwellings they are intended to supply, and naturally get 
the seepage water as it percolates through the soil, carry- 
ing with it the mineral, and also the organic matter, vege- 
table and animal, undergoing decomposition and solution. 

Such shallow well water is usually bright, clear and 
sparkling, and also palatable, but, alas, is most apt to 
carry pathogenic germs of disease, such as typhoid fever, 


and should be avoided whenever possible. In deep wells, 
say of a liundreil feet or more, the organic matter disap- 
pears practically from the water by a process of oxydation 
and purification as it slowly filters through the great 
depth of earth. 

San Francisco is greatly favored in its water supply, if 
we make a comparison with that of other large cities of 
the world. I am not unmindful of the occasional objec- 
tions, and even loud complaints, against Spring Valley 
water. Such complaints were formerly much more com- 
mon, and deservedly so, than now. But before I tell you 
what I have seen of the water, and the sources of the 
water which the Spring Valley Water Works supplies to 
the people of this city, let us take a rapid glance at the 
conditions of tlie water supply in other cities. 

In the numerous reports of the Royal Commissioners 
of the Water Supply of London I find some interesting 
facts, viz : In 1581 Peter Moreys obtained permission to 
build a water-wheel under one of the arches of London 
Bridge, to supply a portion of the city with water, and 
the pumps were operated by the tides. For about 200 
years, a considerable supply of water was obtained in 
this way, pumped from the Thames River at London 

Of course, the water at that time could not have been 
such a terribly polluted stream as in these latter times, or 
London would not have survived with such a water sup- 
ply. But even now the great question of a pure water 
supply for that metropolis is not satisfactorily solved, and 
only a scant quantity of impure water is furnished to its 

The city of Berlin gets its water from the River Spree, 
which has become so polluted by sewage from the popu- 
lated districts on its watershed that 80,000 to 90,000 
micro-organisms can be counted in a cubic centimeter 
(fifteen drops) of its water, and recently I have seen it 


Till-: S.MAI. I, I.AKi; M\|i| l;\ llli; STONh; DAM 

stated that a process of sterilization has been resorted to 
at Berlin by which the water is forced over a series of 
small falls for aeration, and during the passage it is sub- 
jected to a current charged with ozone. Ozone is oxygen 
in an active state, which destroys, by oxygenation, the 
micro-organisms to such an extent as to render the water 

Hamburg, but a short time since, suffered from a 
frightful epidemic of cholera from its polluted water sup- 
lily, due to the flow of sewage into the river which the 
inhabitants were obliged to use. 

Philadelphia has in the past two or three years lost 
more valuable lives from typhoid fever and at greater 
cost to the State and Nation than has l)een sustained by 
our Spanish war, and all this simply by the sewage pollu- 
tion of her water supply. 

New York, New Orleans, and Washington even, are 
struggling with this same impending danger of infection 
from their water supply. 

Chicago, if I may be allowed to again refer more 
particularly to her canal, has spent $33,000,000 in the 
construction of a drainage canal to divert from the city 
its sewage and to remove from its water supply this 
potent source of pollution. This is the largest sanitary 
enterprise which has ever been completed in the history 
of the world. 

This drainage canal is 160 feet wide at the bottom and 
is 38 feet deep, and will carry all the sewage which flows 
from the city into the Chicago River, and which has here- 
tofore remained there or fiowed into Lake Michigan. 
Now, through this great canal it will pass down by 
natural waterways to the Mississippi River. The water 
flowing through this canal from Lake IMichigan through 
the Chicago River is said to be 10,000 cubic feet per 
second, which is about five per cent, of the amount of 
water flowing through the Niagara River, and is sufficient 


to raise the low-water mark one foot in the Mississippi 
River at St. Louis. 

This gigantic enterprise must vastly improve the 
sanitary conditions of Chicago, and save yearly thou- 
sands of its inhabitants from preventable diseases and 
death, serving the two all-important purposes of remov- 
ing all the sewage from the city and also permitting the 
supply of reasonably pure water from Lake Michigan 
contiguous to their intake pipe. 

But while this achievement is such a boon to Chicago, 
yet St. Louis is a sufferer by having this immense amount 
of Chicago sewage added to the already polluted water of 
the Mississippi River, from which stream her water sup- 
ply is drawn. Of course many other cities along the 
Mississippi are equally interested with St. Louis in this 
question, and the courts of justice are being called upon 
to settle it, and it may be in the end that engineers will 
find a way to flow this now dreaded sewage waste on to 
tillable lands, to fertilize them, to keep them ever pro- 
ductive, and in such a way as not to pollute the natural 
waterwa3's of the continent. 

After this cursory survey of the subject in general, let 
us look at home, for our individual interests and welfare. 
My inquiries and study of San Francisco's water supply 
have astonished me with the fact that very fe' people, 
comparatively, manifest any particular interest in the 
subject other than the financial side of it. 

Through the courtesy of the officers of the Spring 
Valley Water ^Vorks I have been able to view, aided 
by intelligent guides,''ihe various and extensive water- 
sheds and works by which this city is well supplied with 
good, wholesome water, free from all such sewage pollu- 
tions as many cities suffer from, situated on navigable 
rivers, or getting their water supply from such a source. 

The growth of the water-works on this peninsula, from 
a small beginning in 1854 to its present gigantic and 



perfected establishment, is truly a marvel in the history 
of such enterprises, and reflects honor upon its promot- 
ers, for their far-seeing wisdom, courage, and skill. 

The operations of the water company in the storage of 
water for the city commenced with Pilarcitos reservoir, 
and one after another San Andreas, Crystal Springs, and 
Lake Merced were acquired. Their watersheds cleared 
as far as possible from contaminating causes, and exten- 
sive, solid, and admirable works erected for the economic 
storage and distribution of the water so provided for, and 
to which system has been added in these recent years 
that very important acquisition of that vast watershed, 
the area of which extends from Mt. Hamilton to Mt. 
Diablo, which yields a generous flow of clear, sparkling, 
well-filtered, and consequently pure water at Sunol, 
where it is protected from surface water contaminations 
and thence conducted in permanently esta])lislied flume 
and pipe lines directly to the company's reservoirs in 
this city.1^ 

My excursion to Lake Merced, a few weeks ago, was a 
delight and a surprise to me. Common report has always 
been adverse to the availability of Lake Merced as a 
source of our water su])p]y, and I am free to confess that 
I fully sympathized with that sentiment from personal 
observations made some years ago in trying to get 
around, over, or through the salt marshes or sloughs, 
where hogs were wont to wallow in the bordering terri- 
tory of this lagoon. Then it was a filthy pool collecting 
the decaying organic matter from the peninsula of which 
it was a receptacle and at high tide getting an inflow of 
salt water from the sea, conditions well calculated to 
njake a lasting impression of the non-potable character 
of Lake Merced water. But now how changed ! 

By the fortuitous combination of two all-important 
events the water of the lake has become a large and 
important source of our water supply. ^ 



^ First — The Pacific Ocean, during the past few years, 
has kindly washed up frona the beach its golden sands, 
and aided by the summer winds a perfect barrier has 
been built against the inflowing salt water from the sea, 
and thus that source of Impurity has been removed. 

Second — A threatened water famine in 1877 convinced 
the Spring Valley Water Works that this water must be 
utilized, and so at great expense and engineering skill 
it constructed drainage canals, by which the polluting 
surface filth is entirely diverted from the lake by a long 
brick aqueduct and tunnel and carried directly totheocean. 

The company now owns and can forever control this 
large area of watershed, and these circumstances have 
transformed Lake Merced from a filthy pool of a salt 
marsh and lagoon, which it formerly was, into a very 
important source of the good potable water supply of our 
city, comparing favorably in the recent analysis made by 
the Board of Health with the other sources on the 

With the experience gained at Lake Merced, the suc- 
cessful diversion of surface impurities from ilowing into 
and polluting the water of the lake illustrates the \>rac- 
ticability of applying the same methods to all the many 
hundred square miles of watershed now owned or con- 
trolled by the Spring Valley Water Works, and its ability 
to furnish an abundant supply of potable water for a 
million or more of thirsty inhabitants. 

The recent acquisition and development of the immense 
watershed in Alameda County is, to my mind, the most 
interesting and admirable crowning work of the Spring 
Valley Water Works, To the penetrating vision of its 
engineer, ^Mi:. Schussler, is due the discovery of a large 
subterranean lake, fed by hundreds of square miles of 
watershed, which has been successfully tapped at Sunol, 
and from which a large flow of delightfully pure water 
is seen to issue from its deep gravel formation. ^ 


■ This subterranean lake is secure from sewage pollution 
and capable of being drawn from at the will and skill 
of the engineer as the wants of the city may demand. 

We look with wonder and admiration at nature's handi- 
work in providing these beautiful hills and valleys, so 
marvelously adapted to the jiurification and storing up 
a generous water supply in such close proximity to our 
favored city. 

Mother Nature, in all lier ' iiidness and with such fos- 
tering care as no human forothouglit could hav(! devised, 
has so planted these hills and so arranged the substrata 
of the valleys as to conduct to a secure and safe reservoir 
the falling rains from cloudland and have them tliere at the 
command of man, ready to serve his most beneficent uses. 

The experience of the past years has convinced the 
presiding intelligence of the Spring Valley Water Works 
that it should have a storage capacity equal to a three 
years' water supply. The immense watershed, embrac- 
ing the hills and valleys, reaching from Mt. Diablo to 
Mt. Hamilton, added to the several lakes and numerous 
reservoirs in the city proper and in San Mateo County, 
enables it to secure and hold, beyond peradventurc, an 
ample supply to meet all necessities of the city and avert 
all danger of a water famine. 

To be convinced of the capability of tlie Spring Valley 
Water Works to collect and impound an immense store 
of water for its future wants one need only to spend a 
few days in exploring the hundreds of square miles of 
watershed which the company owns and controls, embrac- 
ing the hills and valleys of a large portion of Alameda, 
Santa Clara, and Contra Costa counties, and the exten- 
sive watersheds on the peninsula which can be made 
tributary to the Crystal Springs, San Andreas, Pilarcitos, 
and Merced lakes. And finally, its distributing reservoirs, 
nine in number, so unobtrusively located in the various 
sections of the city, and so quietly doing their beneficent 


work of receiving, holding and giving out their many 
hundreds of millions of gallons of water just whenever 
we hundreds of thousands of people open our little 
faucets and get an ample supply of water, always ready, 
to meet our necessities. 

These immense reservoirs are so wisely planned and 
placed at the various necessary altitudes that they supply 
the various districts of high hills and low lands of the 
city under a pressure equal to all emergencies, that of 
extinguishing fires and flushing sewers being of great 
importance. ■ 

It may not be known to many of you how the quality 
of our Spring Valley water is improved and purified by 
its manipulation, by screens and aeration processes and 
the agitation and pressure to which it is subjected in 
traveling its many miles of pipes and conduits before it 
reaches the consumer. 

But such is the interesting fact, and without going into 
any tedious details let me give you a single example of 
the many scientific observations which have been made 
to determine this, and which show that the more con- 
stant the agitation and aeration to which the water is 
subjected the freer it is of the contamination called 
bacteria; e. g., water taken from the San Andreas lake 
after it has passed through a screen which removes some 
of its vegetable matter, yet contains 1040 colonies of 
bacteria to the cubic centimeter, or 15 drops. 

Now, if we follow this water from San Andreas we find 
that it flows through a thirty-inch pipe sixteen miles 
long and is subjected to a 340-foot pressure, and on 
arrival at the College Hill reservoir it has lost one-half 
of its bacteria ; i. e., leaving only 800 colonies in the 
cubic centimeter ; and finally this water undergoes a 
further process of aeration, by which its bacteria are 
again reduced, leaving only 290 colonies in the cubic 


The same results are obtained in the iiiicroscopic tests 
of all the reservoirs of the company ; i. e., there is a 
constant diminution in the bacteria as the water is sub- 
jected to the purifying processes, a result which is very 
desirable — for while a few of these innocent bacteria are 
by no means injurious and should not deter us from 
drinking plenty of water, yet as an exclusive diet we 
might find valid objections. 

Water drawn from the faucet in Cooper IMedical Col- 
lege laboratory sliows from 300 to 400 bacteria in the 
cubic centimeter, and this is a fair average of tiie purity 
of water throughout the city, and compares very favora- 
bly with the water supply in the most favored cities in 
the world. 

These observations were made by the Board of Health, 
and published last month. Their analyses show that 
the purification of the water from this vegetable growth 
in its transmission from San Andreas to College Hill is 
accomplished to the extent of the difference between 
H)40 at the lake to 2'.)0 at the reservoir. 

Still further imj^rovements can certainly be nuide, and 
are now engaging the earnest consideration of the water 
company, which will find, I believe, the final solution of 
this difficulty in the removal of all vegetable growth 
from the waterslud, as far as possible divesting it of 
decaying leaves, grass and shrubs, which now furnish the 
pabulum for the growth of those numerous algre you 
observe in the still water of the reservoirs, and notably 
in the water-tanks of our city houses. 

If it is possible, in other words, to protect the water- 
shed from the decay and solution of vegetable growths, 
we render the water safe from further contamination by 
impounding it in the lakes, or its storage in our reservoirs 
and individual water-tanks. 

The analyses of the water from all the sources of sup- 
ply of the Spring Valley Water Works show a remarkable 


absence of nil pathogenic organisms or si)ecific disease- 
producing germs, like typhoid or tubercular bacilli, from 
which we find that we are perfectly safe in drinking 
Spring Valley water, and, in fact, I believe the average of 
city residents, people of sedentary habits, generally, 
ought to drink more water than they do. 

The suggestion here presented of how best to prepare 
and protect a watershed from contaminating causes is one 
of incalculable importance when you consider the con- 
sequences of neglect which may jeopardize the health 
and lives of a million pcojjle. The solicitude of the 
water company is alive to this problem, and I feel 
assured that every precaution will be taken to keep the 
water pure and free as possil)le from all harmful con- 

The microscopic examination of the water from the 
subterranean lake, at Sunol, shows only twenty to 
forty bacteria to the cubic centimeter, which is the 
most remarkable instance of a natural water in all its 
purity that I know of, and this freedom from organic 
inatter is undoubtedly due to the perfect filtration to 
which it is subjected in reaching and passing tlirough 
the subterranean gravel formation. 



Looking far ahead to the time when San Francisco 
shall have a couple of millions of inhabitants to be sup- 
plied with water, the Spring Valley Company has secured 
another site for an artificial lake, the Calaveras reservoir, 
some ten miles south of Sunol, with a watershed of 140 
square miles tributary to it, which is estimated to yield 
30,000,000 gallons in all ordinary years of rainfall. 

The elevation of the outlet of this auxiliary reservoir, 
as planned, will be 600 feet above tide-water and fifty 
miles from the city, so that nearly the whole city can be 
supplied from it by gravitation, or its water can be made 


to gravitate into San Andreas and Crystal Springs Lakes, 
situated on the peninsula about twenty-five miles south 
of San Francisco. 

Thus it will, be seen that the water supply of San 
Francisco is, happily, well provided for in ample quan- 
tity and of vastly superior quality to that of other cities 
of this continent, and of Europe as well, where usually 
their water supply is drawn from navigable streams, with 
a dense population on their watersheds, polluting them 
by draining their sewage into the passing current. 

So far our investigations justify the conviction that by 
the co-operation of the rainfall, the watershed, and the 
impounding capacit}' of the Spring Valley Water Works, 
San Francisco is generously provided with water for all 
present needs, and a liberal provision has been made 
to meet its further demands. 


^ About eighty gallons per day per individual is the 
present consumption of water, which, if necessary, could 
be reduced by stopping waste and extravagant use to one- 
half that per-capita allowance, and so insure an ample 
supply of potable water for two millions of people. 

A further economy of our potable water supply has 
been with much good reason suggested in connection with 
the construction of the new system of sewerage which 
has been recently provided for by a popular vote, and 
which it is hoped may soon materialize. 

If in that gool work it can be so planned as to utilize 
the salt water from the sea for the flushing of sewers, the 
extinguishing of fires, the sprinkling of streets, and for 
private and public baths, then certainly a great saving of 
the potable water in the reservoirs can be accomplished 

For sanitary considerations, as well as for the economy 
of our potable water supply, it is believed that the intro- 


duction of salt sen water will add to the efficiency of the 
sewers iu forever ridding the city of North Beach 
nuisances, the Butchertown stench, and all such filth 
accumulations and causes of preventable diseases. 

It is truly an outrageous criminal negligence that this 
city, BO favorably located for perfect cleanliness and sani- 
tation, should have been allowed to struggle on through all 
the^^e years with filth diseases and a preventable mortal- 
ity at such great cost of life and money. 

The proposed new sewers, constructed on inodern prin- 
ciples, common sense, and integrity, will, I trust, give us 
a pure atmosphere to breathe and more years to live, and 
oblige us to thank our lucky stars that our lot has been 
cast on this particular shore of the great Pacific Ocean. 






ON TH1<; 

Probable Cost of the Construction 


mm um mm wobks. 



J. D. SCHDYLER, Civil Engineer. 


The President and Board of Directors Contra Costa 
Water Company, OaJdand Cal., Gentlemen: 

At your request I have made surveys and detailed 
examinations of your works for the water supply of 
Oakland and of the records, maps and notes on file in 
your office relating to their construction, with the pur- 
pose of estimating their probable cost, and deducing 
therefrom their present value. The .surveys were prin- 
cipally made under my supervision by W. F. Boardman, 
an Engineer of repute, whose familiarity with the 
works extends back to their commencement, and whose 
notes of special surveys made at the time the construc- 
tion of the dam was in progress have been of material 
assistance in making my calculations. The lack of 
systematic records of the character and cost of materials 
and labor in the earlier years of construction, and the 
almost utter absence of detailed plans and drawings 
have made the task of arriving at a fair estimate of 
the amount of work done in places now inaccessible, a 
diflBcult one, and the difficulties have been increased by 


the necessity of fixing a valuation upon the work under 
the fluctuating scale of prices of niateiials and labor 
in the period from 1868 to the present time. Under 
those conditions it is quite evident that no two engin- 
eers would exactly agree in their estimate of work 
determined in this necessarily hypothetical manner. 
My own experience in constructions of a similar char- 
acter has taught me that a much larger margin mu-t be 
allowed for unforseen accidents, delays and contingent 
expenses than would seem possible or proiiaVile looking 
at the work either before or after construction. T^is 
is especially true in all excavations or embankments 
where water is encounteied and must be disposed of. 
I have consulted all those whom I could find who had 
a part in the construction of the dams and the manu- 
facturing and laying of the main supply pipes, and 
from all sources have gained all information I could 
pos.sibh' obtain to throw light ui)On thu subject. Your 
President, Mr. A. Chnbot, wlio planned all of llie works 
and directed their construction, lias given me much 
detailed information, which, in so many points, has 
been corroborated by outside testimony and positive 
measurement, that I have accepted it as correct in 
nearly every particular. His recollections of dimen- 
sions and details is remarkably clear and accurate. 

Reports were made to the City Council of Oaklan(i 
dated Auj;. 18th. 1874, Jany. I'ith, 187o, and Oct. lith, 
1875, by T. J. Arnold, City Engineer, in which much 
valuable information as to the construction of the San 
Leandro Dam and mains, is given. These have also 
been consulted. 


Oakland wa.s but a village when in LS68 Mr. Chabot 
first introduced water into the streets by a pipe line 
said from the bed of Temescal Creek, some three miles 


laway, but its promise of growth was such that it seemed 
to warrant the construction of a reservoir of moderate 
^ dimensions for impoundinrr water, and in tlie spi ino of 

the same year the Temescal Dam was begun at a point 
H miies Northeast of the City. A point was selecti^d 
some 500 feet above the present site of the dam, )>ut 
after building heavy masonry arches of cut stone for a 
waste way, and excavating for a puddle-wall, the bottom 
proved defective and the work was abandoned after ex- 
pending some .f!lo,000. The present site was then 
Selected and the dam built to a height of 105 feet, above 
the Creek bed, or 427 feet above Oakland base, with a 
top width of 18 feet, and slopes of about 2h to 1 on both 
aides, which have since been increased from year to year 
by sluicing in material from the hillsides, by means of 
ditches that run full for a few days after heavy 

The area of the high water surface of the reservoir 
is 16^ acres, its maximum capnciti/. is estimated at 
^^^,^74,000 gaUo7is, and tho wiitov nhed tributary to it 
at 1500 acres or 2.M sq. miles. Numerous accidents 
have been described to me as occurring during the con- 
struction, and subsequently, which have entailed expense, 
one of which was a landslide that over-toppled the heavy 
brick tower in the lake, in which the reo-ulatino- o-ates 
were placed. 

About the same time that the Temescal reservoir was 
under construction the sr.iall dt.sfrifmtmg reservoiv near 
McClure's Military Academy on Hawthorne street was 
Built. Its elevation is 100 feet above Oakland base, and it 
is supplied fj-ora the Temescal reser\oir. 

The water from the T'emescal reservoii- is now used 
for the supply of Piedmont, Temescal and other high 
subuibsof the City; a portion of it is supplied to the 
Highland Park Reservoir, which was built in 1870 at 
aft elevation of 206 feet above City base. The latter 


reservoir is chieliy supplied, liowt-ve)-, from the Sausal 
Creek, a small stream pas>iiig tlirougli Fruit Vale. It 
has a capacity of 500,000 <x& Ioih, and is supplemented 
in the bUmmer and fall, when other .sources lun short, 
by wntei- pumpud some C.OttO feet, from huge artesian 
wells, bored near this love) in 1S71. 

As the city inmaseil in poouhition and the demand 
for water bei;an to tax the capacity of the works then 
in existence, Mr. Chabot in l!S70, sou^dit a larger source 
of supply where a reservoir might be constructed wiiose 
capacity would be practical y unlimited, as the small 
water shed of the Teme-cal reservoir warranted no 
further increase in the tlimensions of the dam, and e.xteu- 
.sion of supply in th«t direction was impiacticabie. From 
.surveys made in 1870 for this Companj* of the water 
shed of the San Leandro Cieek, it was a.scortaiiied that 
its area was 50 square miles, the fall of the stream com- 
parativel}- slight, allowing large an as to bo flooded hy a 
dam of practical height, and that all conditions were 
favorable to such a construction as Mr. Chabot had in 
view, including mat- rial suitable for the embankment 
in quantit es, at a narrow point between two high hills, 
and at a convenient distance from the city. 

All these advantages decided the .selection, and the 
Company at once .set about the purchase of the neces- 
sary land to cover the site of the reservoir and as much 
of the water-shed as was necessary to protect the waters 
from pollution. 

By Mr. Chabot's wise forethought in inauguratin'^ the 
works for this supply, an impending water famine in 
Oakland was averted and an unlimited supply secured 
for the future. 

The construction of the San Leandro dam was begun 
in the summer of 1874 at a point 1 J miles above the 
village of San Leandro, and 9i miles southeasterly from 
Oakland, where the creek bed had an elevation of 115 

feet above Oakland base, and the width between the 
hills at a height 115 feet above was but 400 feet. The 
Woi'k was continiiousl)^ prosecuted until in the fall of 
1875 the dam had readied a height of 215 feet above 
bise ; the mains were laid and the water turned into the 
city. The dam has since been carried 17 feet higher, 
and its crest is now 232 feet above city base. 

The elevation of the water surface at the time our 
surveys were made was 222.7 feet above city base, at 
which lieight the reservoir contained 4,823,440,500 gal- 
lon.s, above the mouth of the outlet tunnel. 

The building of the dam was attended by many ex- 
pensive accidents, to wluL-h all constructions of that 
magnitude are liable, necessitating many changes of plans 
and the expenditure of labor and money which are not 
now apparent from a casual inspection. Work was car- 
ried on continuously duiing a severe rainy season. The 
seamy and permeable character of the rock on the west- 
erly spur or point which is pierced by the outlet and 
ovei-flow tunnels and wastcvvay, re(iuired a large amount 
of masonry and concrete wall to pievont leakage, which 
might endanger the safety of the dam. 

The embankment is built with a puddle-wall of se- 
lected clay in the center, 90 feet wide at the bottom, 
extending down 10 to 30 feet below the surface, the 
trench being lined with concrete, and grooves or trenches 
in two, and sometimes three parallel lines, being cut in 
the solid rock beneath die bottom of the puddle-wall 
and filled with concrete to prevent all possible leakage. 
After the puddle-wall had reached the natural surface 
of the ground, the entire dam was built up in layers and 
with equal care, the only difference between the puddle- 
wall and the remainder of the embankment beino- that 
choicer material was selected for deposit on the center 
of the dam. Practically, then, it may be said to be all 
puddled, with the exception of that portion put in by 


^luicinjj;. Every effort seeins to have been made to 
jjttain absoluU) stability of the tlatn, ami it conveys tq 
any one looking at it a sense of perfect security. The 
slopes are built in steps or benches, and are generally 
about 2h feet horizontal to 1 foot vertical, on each side,; 
The eiiibankment was principally built with carts and. 
horses, the material btinfr spread in thin layers, con- 
stantly wet down with host- sujiplie<l by steam pump, 
and compacted by means of horses in gangs tied to- 
gether, driven back and foi ward over it— >-a method pre- 
ferred to that of rolling. After the embankment hadj 
reached a considerable height the slopes were reinforced 
by material sluiced in by water brou<,dit in a ditch and 
flum< 4 miles long. This was only done, however, for a' 
few weeks each year during; the rainy season. Never- 
theless it formed an iujportant factor in cheapening the 
cost, as the material thus transported was placed in the 
dam at about one-fourth to one-Kfth of the cost of hand- 
ling by carts or excavators. I estimated that the total 
amount of material thus handled was about 100,000 cub. 
yds., and I based my estimates u])on the measured ca- 
pacity of the ditch, the average length of time each 
season that sluicing was done, and the average duty of 
water used in the mines of California for sluicing similar 
material. The amount of water u.sed in sluicing was 
about 10 to 15 cub. feet per second (400 to 600 miner's 
inches), the duty of the miner's inch being about 2 cub. 
yds. per 24 hours. 

As planned, the dam will ultimately be carried 75 feet 
higher when its capacity will be about 15,000 million 
gallons, or almost 5 g ears' supply at the rate of thegreat- 
st daily consumption thus far recorded. 

To keep pace with the piobable future growth of the 
city, Mr. Chabot has looked forward to a still further , 
increase of the supply, and has secured for the Company, , 
a tract of land in the Pledna afun Valley, covering a 


valuable water right. Considerable work has beea 
dlreaily done in digrrino- a canal to drain the lagooft 
formed by the largo springs on the tract, and the sur-; 
veys have demonstrated that a cjm;d line to lead the 
water from this source into San Leandro Lake is quite, 

• Considerable work wis done toward the improvement 
o,f the system during tlie past year; the dam was raised 
sbme 17 feet, the waste ways and masonry breast walls 
were carried up to correspond; 13,012 feet of the 24-- 
inch main were taken up and 5 032 feet of it were I'e- 
laid from the dam westward, making a double line of 
24-inch main for that distance, from the end of which 
a 37i inch main was laid a distance of 25,314 feet, to 
High street. It was found on taking up the 24-inch 
main, that where it had been laid in adobe soil, the as- 
phaltum coating had been almost entirely absorbed, and 
the iron considerai'ly corroded. To avoid a repetiton of 
that destructive action the new 37i-inch main was .sur- 
rounded with .sand in the trench, G inches to 12 inches in 
depth to prevent con^^t with adobe soil— tl^ sand being 
hauled seveial miles. '■ ' ; 

In presenting my estimate of the probable cost of the 
works I am aware that .some of the prices which I have 
assumed will be subject to criticism they are so 
largely in excess of the current prices of to-day. This 
remark will chiefly apply to my estimate of the cost of 
the 24-inch main from San Leandro dam to Finit Vale, 
38,420 feet in length. It must be borne in mind, however, 
that tliis pipe was manufactured at a time when iron 
was at its highest market price, that it was made by 
hand, when hydraulic machinery was not in use, and that 
it is a more costly pipe to lay than the larger sizes on 
account of the difficulty of getting into it to do the riv-J 
eting in the trench. For the tirst mile from the dam' 
heavy rock cutting on the face of high bluffs was nee- 


essary to prepare the level bench for the roa lway, and 
the trench was afterwanls cut into and below the level 
thus established. The prices of brickwoi k are high on 
account of a scarcity of brick in the market, produced by 
the large demand for the Palace Hotel, then in process 
of erection. 

As for the prices on earthwork of that class, I con- 
sider those used in my estimate to be fair and reasonable, 
In niy judgment the}' are not in excess of what would 
be bid for the woi k by any intelligent contractor, with 
labor at the prices ruling in 1874-5. 

Following is a summary of my estimate of the prob- 
able cost of the works: 


//J it * San Leandro Reservoir % 81:3.8.51 90 

/J J J V* Temescal " 305,04:] 25 

- - - - MeClure " 7,000 00 

S-er^ Highland Park 6,025 00 

/ 0~Tt-t, I'umi>iiig Works, East Oakland 20,000 00 

Total Pipe Distributing System, including 

eie</j^J/ coi:\is, cr^Sit^^o>i<.G^^t^, cic^^^ 1,700,248 09 

/^/^^^Real Estatf^TOcludmg SausaT Kiservoir 

and Water-rights 170,241 00 

S'* Engineering, Superintendence, Legal Ex- 
penses and Contingencies 100.000 00 

- - - Stock on hand ^J'J^^ ^1 

-Z^^^fj Total S3,194,609 24 

• In this estimate nothing has been added for cost of 

■water-rights, which on the Temescal and San Leandro 
Creek have been expensive. 

I append herewith detailed estimates of the cost of the 
work. They have been carefully considered, and I be- 
lieve them in my judgment to be as nearly correct as it 
is po-!sible to arrive at them without more exact data 
than has been placed at my disposal. 

Respectfully submitted. 

J. D. SCHUYLER, Civil Engineer. 




BuiMini^s and general iiiipiovonients past 

and present 14,000.00 %0 

Grulihinfr and clearing 7.4 acres under Dam 

at.f!)0 00(3.00 

Stripping surface, soil, loose rock, &c„ 322.500 

superficial ft. average 3 in. deejr at -OOe-. . 21,499.20 /Oy^a 
Excavation for Pudille-wall — ]6,C;I0 cub. 

y<ls. loose rock at flrOth ^'.^.'TT:... 16,030.00 / d>' 

Concrete plaster on bottom and lower side of 

puddle tiencli,and small sub-trenches filled 

with concrete 1,409 cub. yds. at $9..//. . 12,681.00 f S% 3 
Puddle-wall best selected clay, handled three 
times, spread in thin layers, wet down, and 

compacted 82,976 cub. yds. at $4t^C^. , 124,464.00 y^i^y^ 
Main embankment 421,709 cub. yds. — viz: 
299,709 cub. yd.s. by carts at 

Vtm-. >rf.':T. ^ $299,700.00 / ff^iTc^ - 

122.000 cub. yds. .sluiced at;^ 30,500.00 330,200.00 / ^IS.^ o - ' 
Catch basin embankment 

38,(;26 cub. yds. at^ . 7,605.20 3 S o;i - 

Main Wasteway — 

4,400 cub. yds. loose rock at 

»0e. <f?'.T. % 3,960.00 %9.oo~, 

4,400 cub. yds. solid rock at 

S2.25 ^. 9,900.00 

2,906 cub. yds. stone masoniy 

at $12.00. ./f^. 34,860.00 

192 cub. yds. concrete at $9.00/!j;'. 1,728 00 

Flume 3,336.30 . 

Planking floor below flume . . . 287.00 

3 / 0/3Z — 


Bank protection rock and 

2/.£)0 fascine work 500.00 .)+ 971.30 

^DO Regulating bridge and W'ir. . . 400.00 

Lower Tunnelr 8Qo ft. long — 
1,994 cub. yd.s. excavation at 

/f/^ ^rm^ ....../. .Yr 13,0:)8.00 

»; 498 cub yds. brick lining at 

y ^ t? 20 cts ^/A - 9,9G0.0^ 

713 cub. yd.s. concrete outside 

^of brick -StH-'./.^r 6,417.00 

~/ / 2G2 cub. yds. concrete around 

/ jrs*^ - pipe atSs^ ■ ■/■/■ 2.358.00 

-Timber lining 2,535.00 35,228.00 

Shiiff IGO Ferf Deep. ^ 
/ y Excavation 295 cub. ycllTat .?S . 2,3G0 00 
> ^ Brick work, 70 cub. 5^.s<%"'?20 . $1 .400 00 
Concrete 124 cub. yd.s. (rt ^i!^/'. 1,116.00 
_ Valve and boosting gear 200.00 «;5 ,076.00 

Inlet lo Lover Tunnel — 
Ma.sonry stone, 259 c\ib. j-ds. @ 

/ r/-^ $\2 ..M../ S8,l 08.00 

Cast iron rings on trunk antl 
.seat, 7 in. 1 igb, 49 J in. in- 
side diameter, 2,290 lbs, @ 

6c 137.40 

* Jib Bolts for .oame 25.00 

^V-p Trunk 57 ft. bigh in section.s. . 702.00 S3,972.40 

Wasfeivay Outlet to Lower Tanud — 
/^o E.Kcavating 322 cub. yds. ^^r..* 193.20 

Masonry lining 83 5-10 cub. yds. 
^-y^/ (a^'^m^. 1,002.00 

Flume 140.00 

/ ^ o Cement tilling under floor 220.00 


Wall supporting end of fluim> 

30x40x5,222 cub. @ *12r 2,064.00 $4,219.20 /^^^ 

Upi>cr Tunnel (410 feet loii<i)-gr^ 
Excavatin.^ 1,230 cub. yds. @ ^,.$,S,6 10.00 
Exciiv.ition (new i)oition) 624 

cub. yds 6 . . 4,3(18.00 

Timber lining 61« ft. @ $6.70 4,140.60/^ 
X75 ft. lelined with biick ma- 
sonry, 118 cub. yds. @ $20. , 2,360.00 //^ 
Concrete filling 122 cub. yds, 

1,098.00 $20,576.00 





Shaft to Upi)er.Tunne.l (60 ft. deep 8.2 in. dis.) 

Excavation 175 i;ub. yds. @, $7, ^1,225.00 ^ ^"^ 

Brick lining 41 cub. yds. @ $20 820.00 ^/<f 

Concrete filling 20 cub. yd.s. / ^<!> 

' 180.00 2,225.00 

Inlet tunnel 35 feet long® $30, $1.050.00 ^i^*? 1,050.00 / 

Headgate to upper tunnel, ma- 
sonry in gate and walls, 
756 yds. @ $14. . ./.y 10,584.00 

Wa^teway and Chute to Upper Tunnel. 










3 3 JO 


Timber lining and chute 334.00 

Cement filling under floor, 55 cub. 

yds. @ $9 ^..y. 495.00 

Screen tanks /. . 'j^^^^W^^^^^'^'^^t*^ 

Clearing 333 aSres lake bed at $60. .^<i>. 
Fencing 15 miles @ $600.00 

Roads and bridges 15 miles at $3,000 46,000.00 J <^-t>^ 

Barges 3, at $300 900.00 - - - ~ 

Five miles water ditch, flumes, hydraulic 

pipes, etc 7,500.00 / ^ 

Pumps and boiler for supply at stables and 

residences 1.800,00 

3 if^rSC 

200.000 hees planted 9,000.00 

Wall.s covering face of permeable rock from 
wasteway to upper tunnel head^ato, 340 
ft in length, 40 to 50 ft high. 1,332 cub. 

fJZ9^ yds. masonry at $r±^J^.7. 15,984.00 

Refilling hole washed out at mouth of upper 

- - t-mnel 2,000.00 

Puld'e wall and eml ankment washed out 

iluiing construction 21, :i(»0 cub. yd.s 31,800.00 

Stocking lake wiih l.OOO.OO 

^^JJJ^^ ^S13,85lT!J0 


/4r^ Building.s past and present Si 0,000.00 

Work on original dam abandoned 14,000.00 

E.Kcavation for ]>uddle wall, 10,761 cub. yds. 

<tj or~t> builders gravel and soil (« .'f^^.'T. . . 8,085.75 
Earth stripped from surface underneath dam 

-Zy 9,295 cub. yds. #"600., Jfi^. 5,577.00 

Puddle wall bottom 30 ft. bottom by IS ft. 

/ ^ff-^~0 on top, 33,990 cub. yd.s. iit SI. 75 . ^. . , 59.482.50 

Embankment 227,440 cub. yds. 159,208.00 
/ / ^ y Brick tower 50 ft. high destroyed by land 

slide 6,000.00 

Stone paving, 600x15, 9,000 superficial ft @ 

/Z^ i^err-r^ S^'T'. 900.00 

Pipes through bank tunnel gates, &c., in use 

/ ir-vc and abandoned li.OOO.OO 

^tTt' Stand pipe and .straitior 700.00 

Waste way, llOii cub. yds. masonry 

/V*^ S!3,272.00; Timber work S128.00./^'«r-. 13,400.00 

Aerating tank, 33,000 OS-"^'^) ^ 1,500.00 

ftrr Grubbing lake bed, 18.5 acres @ . . 1,480.00 

/ *'encing 2 miles l,2»O00 

ji»trx> Roads and bridges, 1.81 miles at S3,000 5,430.00 

Ditches and flumes, 5 miles at $2,000 10,000.00 

^^^^.^j^j: 2,000 ft. 12-inch pipe 2,000.00 


'5 / 



' 1 iaiii. 



1 ulal 
Cosi ' 


per It. 

• aid.. 

per ft 


.1 <jrl V . vV 1 1 




u. / o 




■ - fct (( 


l.l i> 

1 OS 
1. — 

. . 



it (( 

O.J o.JO 

»A A 



■} 1 , + 1 

1 . t 

o in. 


1 do 


O ci 



1 / .UoU 

1 AA 














yi /( on 




1 IWt 

J .yy 

•1 A T X 

7 " 





7 " 




O i( 









1 0. 75 

10 " 





11 " 





12 " 





13 « 





lo " 





22 " 





24 " 




24 " 

takeli up reld 



48 " 

steel 5 1-U 






32 14.0 i 



wr't laid 




wr't unlaid 







1,020 OCL— 
13 226 40L J3 aj^^ 
40- J>? Z Al 

00 7<yy^y*i. 


24^/ C^Srj 

00 J/^j!^.<tf* 

18,524 34 ^S_6-/ 
131,710 V^4.f6ifi 

64 383 



40__y_/ / c 

90^^ 2- 2^ 

40 / / 46 2. /V 
80 -^t-^ rT^ 
00 -2^ ^ <5^| 

6a ^rfrrr 

5.5 ^ <ri ^ 

95 s^Jzyyit 
00 4^7^/** 

00 <J/2>?^>»^ 

12 zr^c trr> 

40 f O Z4f ^ 


15 f <^Z/^_ 

00 ^^J/ji»c 

Sl,601, 667.87 

Total length of pipe, laid 

Average cost per mile (all sizes) . 
Total length of pipe in use 

^ A 

6 / 

15 7 m iljeai 

. . . .SlO,201.7a-. 
15.2.2 .nai^^ 



I in. galv. 225 ft 1.5c for removal. .S 38 75 

1 " " 6,258 " 15c " , . 938 70 
\\ " " 6,078 " 15c " " .. !)ll 70 
U" " 6,606 " 15c " " . . 9!»0 75 

2 " " 11,932 " 15c " " . . 1,789 80 

3 " cast 56 " 25c " " . . 14 00 
3&3iin. tubes 312 " 20c " " .. 62 40 

4 in. cast 360 " 3(te " " . . 108 00 

5 " sheet 1.250 " 30c " " . . 375 00 

5 " cement 11,521 " 30c " " . . 3,456 30 

6 " cast 200 " 40c " " .. 80 00 

7 " sheet 1,2.50 " 40c " " .. 500 00 
7 " cemi-nt 24,405 " 40c " " . . 9,760 00 

" wrought 5,335 " 50c " " . . 1,667 50 
11 " " 860 " 60c " " .. 516 00 
13 " •' 330 " 65c " " 344 50 
24 " taken up and not relaid (1895) " . . 9,300 00 

Total removed, 75.178 ft. Total cost. . S30,84S 40 


1 in. galvanized 5,348 ft 

II '• 5,225 ft 

U " 3,7<'9 ft 

2 " 2,000 ft 

3 and 3^ tubes 312 ft 

5 in. sheet 1,250 ft 

6 " cement 6,231 ft 

7 " .sheet 1,250 ft 

7 ' " cement lined 18,210 ft 

11 " wrought 860 ft 

13 in. " 530 ft 

Total Condemned 

44,920 ft 



1 in. galvanized 915 ft 

U in. " 853 fe 

1| in. " 2,897 ft 

2 in. " 9,932 ft 

3 in. cast 56 ft 

5 in. cement lined 5,290 ft 

6 in. cast 200 ft 

7 in. cement lined 6,195 ft 

9 in. wrought 3,335 ft 

Total pipe taken up and relaid 29,673 ft 



1 in 

U in 


2 in 

3 in 

4 in....C.^.5^*...). 

6 in )r.). 

8 in....(r. ;2.^7.r.}. 

10 in. . .. . . 


14 in 

22 in 

24 in 

48 in 



. 67 




. 77 




SY - 







29 *^ 

, 70X 



u-f <£? 



3 3 J * 
















.. 37 





. 7 

/ 5-^^ ' 




Z - 






$56,718 7 


TEES. , J 

Diam. Nmnber. Cost.' 

o in TTT.Tr. :'. ...10 §4+70 

4 in. . . ■•.•.•^¥.*;'i^?;'f.-. .. 137 1,061 7^ 

(i in . . . . , ;. .^.y.-i;; . ir7> 95 *J7:i 50 

8 in .. . . i . .. 4H 7sO 00 

10 in 12 312 00 

1 2 in. , 16 582 OO 

14 in 5.3 2,146 50 

16 in 1 47 70 

22 in......... 2 100 00 

24 in. .. .v viy-. . 11 825 00 

37i in 1 150 00 

-Sy S 4f>'' jj|;6 973 20 


Diam. Nunilier. 

3 in 24 S 121 20 

4 in 239 1,912 00 

6 in 88 1,254 00 

8 in 27 540 00 

10 in 9 290 00 

12 in 6 249 00 

14 in 94 4,798 70 

22 in 12 600 00 

24 in 75 00 

37-^, in 1 200 00 

y| ' g!lO,039 90 
00.000 V 

**''66^'0F LAYING 24-I\. M.\l.\, 1875— 38,420 FEET. 

2,.50O a No. 12 at 35i lbs. . . 88,750 Iks. 
2.500 ft. No. 1 1 at 39 tKs .... 97,500 }t>s. 


10,000 ft. No. 10 at 4>^ lt)s. . 4^5,000 fts. 
23,420 ft. No. 9 at 48fts. . . . 1,184,160 ft.s. 

Total weight 1,805,410 at G cts., $108,324 

Manufacturing by hand labor at S3.50 per ft. . .$134,470* 

Dipping in asphaltum 38,420 ft. at 24 cts. per ft. 9,220 

HauHng and distributing at SC.OO per ton :>,700 

Mechanical work in trench— 38,420 ft. at 80e. . 30,736 
- Di'-{jing avcl refillivij — 

Rock— exc. 19,620 cub. yds. at $1 $19,620 

Earth— exc. 28,700 cub. yds. at .60 17,220 

Joint holes— 1,480 at $1.50 each 2,220—39,060 

Total .$327,510 

LENGTH 25,314 FEET. of iron freight, insurance, haulincr, stor- 
age, drayage, weighing, inspecting and 

delivery to shop $65,616.40 

Cost of manufacturing and laying as per 

contract, 7.),3 1 4 feet at $2,875 72,777.75 of excavating trench, 51,200 cub. yards 

at 60c 30,720.00 

Oost of excavating joint holes 1,800.00 

Cost of refilling and tamping, including 

7,500 cub. yds. sand 15,000.00 

Cost of manhole.s,Jolow-cffs, air valv&s, &e. 7,000.00 

Cost of bridges, culverts and waterways... 2,500.00 

Cost of telephone line 2,000.00 

Cost of rights of way ] ,400.00 



LENfiTH 1,318 FEET, 

Iron plates at $2.()0 per foot 

Manufacturing 2.32.5 " " 

Pitting ancl covering 7.-t" " 

Total'. S5 " 

feet at «5 per foot 0,590.00 

Total cost of .^7] in pipe $205,604.15 



/7 ^ ^ 

3sr o a? 




Obtain a Supply of Water, 




2'he People of the State of California, represented in Senate and 
Assembly, do enact as follows : 

Section i. The City of Oakland may exercise the right 
of eminent domain, by taking for public use, in order to 
supply said City and adjacent towns, and the people therein 
with water, any flowing stream or streams of water, lake or 
lakes, or artificial reservoir or reservoirs, or places tor the 
construction of the same within the County of Alameda, 
and the land over which the stream or streams flow, or which 
the lake or lakes cover, and all riparian rights connected 
therewith, and sufficient land to build dams, and for reser- 
voirs to hold such water, and the right of way to lay pipes 
to conduct such water, and any water-works now or hereaf- 
ter conducting water to said city, -with the water pipes, res- 
ervoirs, rights to water, rights of way for pipes and lands^ 
and appurtenances of every kind connected with or belong- 
ing to such water-works, or the person or persons, corpora- 
tion or corporations owning or claiming the same. 

Sec. 1. A Board of Public Works is hereby created to 
be called the Board of Public Works of Oakland, consist- 
ing of five persons, who shall be citizens of Oakland, and 
who shall be appointed by the Governor of the State for the 

term of four years. They shall receive no compensation 
for their services. Said Board shall meet on the third Tues- 
day, [19th] of May, eighteen hundred and seventy-four, 
and at such other times as they may appoint. A journal of 
their proceedings shall be kept. They shall appoint one of 
their number President, and one to act as Secretary^ in the 
absence of the City Clerk or his Assistant. They shall 
provide for calling special meetings. A majority of the 
Board shall constitute a quorum. They shall adopt rules 
for their proceedings, and have power to fill vacancies oc- 
curring in their body. Their meetings shall be public. On 
all questions requiring the concurrent action of the City 
Council, or the delegation of authority, the vote shall be by 
yeas and nays, and be recorded in the journal of their pro- 
ceedings; and a majority of all the members shall be nec- 
essary to carry any proposition on which they may vote, 
except a motion to adjourn, which may be carried by a ma- 
jority of the members present. Before entering upon their 
duties they shall each take and subscribe to the oath of office 
as members of the Board. 

Sec 3. The City Council of Oakland, and the Board oi 
Public Works shall have authority to do all things consistent 
with law, and recited in this Act, and relating to preliminary ex- 
aminations with reference to obtaining a supply of water for 
the City of Oakland and the Towns of San Leandro, Ala- 
meda, and adjacent neighborhoods, and the terms of pur- 
chase of water rights or works, and condemnation of the 
same, and the employment of counsel and engineers, and the 
letting of contracts, and the issuing of bonds, and the sale 
thereof, and the construction of works, and maintaining of 
the same, and the expenditure of money, and the incurring 
of any debt or obligation of indebtedness in obtaining said 


supply of water, and in the appointment of agents or com- 
missioners to represent the city in any work or duty connec- 
ted with the work aforesaid, and defining their duties ; but 
neither the City Council nor the Board of Public Works 
shall have any authority as aforesaid, unless by the separate 
and concurrent action of both bodies. 

Sec. 4. At any time when the City Council and the Board 
of Public Works may deem it expedient, three commission- 
ers shall be appointed — one by the City Council, and two by 
said Board — who shall have power under instruction from 
said bodies, to act for and represent the City in all matters 
and proceedings necessary and incident to the procuring of 
a supply of water for the City, by purchase, or condemna- 
tion, or otherwise, as provided in section one of this Act; 
and the grant, or purchase, or acquisition of any rights or 
property obtained under this Act, shall be made to and for 
the City. Said Commissioners shall give bonds payable to 
the City and to be approved by the Council, for the faithful 
performance of their duties, in such amounts as the City 
Council and the Board of Public Works may require, and 
shall receive such compensation as the Council and the Board 
may fix. 

Sec. 5. In all matters relating to the condemnation of 
lands and water rights, and rights of way, and obtaining and 
supplying the City of Oakland and adjacent towns with 
water as set forth in this Act, and where the Board of Pub- 
lic Works has no concurrent power with the City Council, 
the Council shall have full authority to do all things consis- 
tent herewith, and necessary to carry into effect the provis- 
ions of this Act. 

Sec. 6. Before proceeding to condemn any property men- 
tioned in section one of this Act, said Board shall endea- 


vor to purchase the same froin the owner or owners, and if 
the parties cannot agree on the terms of sale and purchase, 
said Board may proceed to condemn the same. 

Sec. 7. On condemning said property, the proceedings 
must be taken under title seven, part three, of the Code of 
Civil Procedure, and all the sections of said title are made 
applicable to and apart of this Act, and in such proceedings, 
the said Board of Public Works shall be the plaintifl'. 

Sec. 8. For the purpose of paying for any lands or prop- 
erty required to be purchased, or condemned under the pro- 
visions of this Act, and for the purpose of carrying out any 
ot the provisions of this Act, the Board of Public Works 
shall have power to issue bonds of the City of Oakland, 
payable on the first day of July, A. D. eighteen hundred 
and ninety-six, unless previously redeemed, as is herein pro- 
vided, to an amonnt not exceeding eight hundred thousand 
dollars; said bonds shall be of denominations not less than 
five hundred dollars, and shall have coupons attached for the 
interest thereon, which interest shall beat the rate of seven 
per cent per annum, payable semi-annually, on the second 
day of January and the first day of Julv, of each year, and 
said principal and interest shall be made payable at the office 
of the Treasurer of the said City of Oakland. Said bonds 
shall be signed by the Mayorand the Treasurer of said City, 
and countersigned by the President of the Board of Public 
Works, and the coupons shall be signed by said Treasurer, 
and said bonds shall be numbered consecutively from one to 
the last number issued. For the purpose of liquidating the 
bonds issued as aforesaid, the City Council of Oakland is 
hereby authorized to levy annually a special tax from and 
after the year eighteen hundred and eighty-six, in sufficient 
amounts to redeem ten per cent, annually of the outstand- 


ing bonds, (the redemption of which may not otherwise have 
been provided for) and until all of said bonds shall have 
been redeemed, and the money arising from said tax shall 
be used for no other purpose than the redemption of said 

Sec. 9. Whenever said Board of Public Works require 
money to pay for said property, whether obtained by pur- 
chase or condemnation, they may sell said bonds to obtain 
said money, or they may make payment for said property 
in said bonds, at the par value thereof, if they can make a 
contract to that effect, and think it for the pecuniary interest 
of said City to do so. 

Sec. 10. The money thus obtained shall be kept by the 
City Treasurer, subject to the order of said Board, and shall 
be used for no other purpose than to pay for said property, 
and the costs of legal proceedings, and to construct the ne- 
cessary works to bring the water into said City, and distri- 
bute the same, and the purchase of materials therefor, and 
all expenses connected therewith, and the interest on said 
bonds until the receipts from the sale of water will pay said 
interest, and the money obtained by the sale of water from 
the water-works, shall be called the "Water Work's Fund." 

Sec. II. The money received from the sale of water from 
said Water Works, shall be kept by the City Treasurer, 
subject to the order of said Board of Public Works, and 
shall be used for no other purpose than to pay the expenes 
of the care and management of and repairs to said water- 
works, and the interest on and redemption of said bonds, , 
until the same are all paid. 

Sec. 12. Whenever there is in said "Water Work's 
Fund " not less than fifteen thousand dollars, not required 
for the care and management of and repairs to said water- 











Gathered from the Official Reports of Cities and Tozvtis 
in the United States. 




The charges for Fire Hydrants in the following list are per annum. The 
words "per annum" were omitted in some places for brevity. 



Letter of January 6, 1880. 

Chai-ge $100.00 for each fire hydrant, and give no free 


ANZONIA, Private. 

Letter of January 9, 1880. 

Charge $30.00 for each fire hydrant. 

BiNCHAMTON, Private. 

Letter of Jan. 5, 1880. 

Charge $80.00 for each fire hydrant, and give no free 

DANBURY, Public. 

Report of 1875. 

Acts, Charters and By-Laws. 
HARTFORD, Public. 

Leter dated Jan. 5, 1880. 

Charge $30.00 ^or each fire hydrant. 

Report of 1875, pages 26 and 27, 

Pays $8,280.00 for water for fire hydrants. 
" $1,694.00 " sprinkling. 
Report of 1876 page 33, 


HARTFORD, Continued. 

Bonded debt, §1,052,000.00. 
Report of 1878, pages 11, 12 and 13, 

Remarks on the justice of charging for all water used 

for city purposes. 
Report of 1879, page 19, 

Table of family water rates in various cities. 


Report of 1874. 

Acts, Charters, page 10, justice of charging the city for 


DENVER, Private. 

Letter of Jan. 12, 1880. 

All property along line of pipe is equally benefited 
whether using it or not. 


NEW CASTLE, Private. 

Letter of Jan. 6, 1880. 

The city paj's for all water used except for that fur- 
nished 25 fire hydrants. 


Letter of Jan. 5, 1880. 

Buildings not using water pay a protection tax. 
Report of 1878, 

Page 57, remarks on impurities in water. 
" 74, " " " " " 


AUGUSTA, Public. 

Letter dated Jan. 9, 1880. 

Every unimproved lot in front of which water pipes are 
laid, pays water rates. 



ALTON, Private. 


^ Letter of Jan. 3, 1880. 

Q Receive $100.00 per annum for fire hydrants; thinlc laws 
of Cal. sliould be altered to suit the times, so that all 
® property along pipe should pay. 

CHICAGO, Public. 

Report of 1878, 

Pages 95 to 101, impurities in water. 

HYDE PARK, Public. 

Revised Ordinances, 1876. 

Laws, Ordinances, Charter and general law. 
Page 100, Rules and Regulations. 

108, family water i-ates. 

109, metered " 

170, levy and collect water tax, assessment, etc. 
189 and 190, power to provide water and tax for it. 
192, cities may contract for water supply, levy and 
collect tax on property, etc. 


Report of 1877. 

Page 5, 78 hydrants pay $75.00 each. 
" 15, bad water from wells. 
" 16, animalculpe not bad, but purify water. 
" 18, sewer matter dangerous. 
" 19, test of water. 



Report of 1878 ; 

Page 11, Water Co. to be allowed 10 per cent, per an- 
num, profit on their investment. 
Page 12, property benefited along line of water pipe. 
" 15, city pay for fire protection, $12,162.51. 


INDIANAPOLie, Continued. 

Page 21, 181 fire hydrants pay S50.00 each. 
" 31, analysis of water. 
" 35, general laws. 
" 36, the city could be a stock-holder. 
" 37, give power to charge cities and inhabitants 

for water. 
" 39, city to pay for water. 

" 43, water rates. i 
TERRE HAUTE, Private. 

Letter dated Jan. 3, 1880. 

There ought to be a charge for fire protection. Laws 
under which charter was granted. 


ANAMOSA, Private. 

Letter dated Jan. 3, 1880. 

Ordinance, articles of incorporation. 
If the same laws were in force in Iowa you have in Cal. 
there would be no water works constructed here. Charge 
for water to sprinkle and for fire purposes. 


Letter and rates dated Jan. i, 1880. 

City allowed to levy a tax of five mills on the dollar of 
the assessed value of the property within the protection 
limit. Seepage 11. 

DEVENPORT, Private. 

Letter and rates dated Jan, 3, 1880. 

Page 4, charge S80.00 per annum for each hydrant. 


Letter dated Jan. 7, 1880. 

Are allowed to collect a tax of five mills on all property 
within the fire limits. 


MUSCATINE, Private. 

City Ordinance. 

Page 3, city to pay $75.00 pei' hydrant. 

" 5, grant right to build reservoir on public square. 



Report of 187(i. 

Page 8, city pays $32,800.00 for water for public use. 

" 7, city subscribed $1,270,000.00 towards stock of 


BANCOR, Public. 

Report of 1878. 

Page 8, table of prices in various cities for water meas- 
ured per 1000 gallons. 

Charter and Ordinances, pages 170 and 171. 

City allowed to pay a total of $12,000.00 for water 
furnished public departments. Fire hydrants each, 
$50,00 per annum. 

ROCKLAND, Private. 

Letter dated Jan. 14, 1880. 

Company is exempt from taxation tor furnishing pub- 
lic water. 


ALLEGAN, Public. 

Letter dated Jan. 10, 1880. 

All property assessed for interest on water bonds. 


Fire hydrant pays $50.00 for each hydrant. 
Pages 5 and 6, Laws, Ordinances, Acts, 


DETROIT, Public. 

Report of 1873, page 12. 

Vacant lots in front of which water pipe are laid, to 

pay three cents per lineal foot. 
Report of 1875. 

Pages 48 and 55, aasessment of property. 

Acts of incorporation, Acts, Onlinance,s and By-Laws. 


Rates dated May 5, 1879. 

Metered water as high as in Cal. 
Sprinkling charged for. 


Letter Jan. 8, 1880. 

Charge three cents per lineal foot front on property be- 
fore which water pipe is laid. 



An Ordinance, page 5, pay for sprinkling. 


KANSAS CITY, Private. 

Sprinkling costs per square per month, SIO.OO. 


ANNAPOLIS, Private. 

Letter of Dec. 24, 1879. 

City pays precisely as private individuals. None of the 
prviate Companies in the State of Maryland are obliged 
to furnish free water for any purpose. 




Report of 1879. 

Page 9, from highway department for sprinkling streets 

" !), Fire Department, $3,700.00. 

Report of 1878. 

Page 4, find that 70 cities pay an average of $62.34 per 

" 41, propriet}- of charging towns for public water 
will be admitted to be just and proper when duly con- 


Letter dated Jan. 22, 1880. 

There is a general law that permits all water Companies 
to contract with the city or town. We have six woi'ks 
in as many different States, and the contracts are made 
under a similar law. 

HOLYOKE, Public. 

Report of 1876. 

Pages 16 to 26, examination of bad and good water. 
9 to 14, troubles with bad water. 

LAWRENCE, Public. 

Letter dated Jan. 13, 1880. 

City allows $10,000.00 for public water, each year. 
Report of 1878. 

Page 17, city is charged with all public water from the 

several departments. 

LOWELL, Public. 

Report of 1879. 

Page 69, 653 hydrants pays at $20.00 : $12,948.33. 



Letter dated Jan 10, 1880. 

Wherever main pipes are laid charge 50c. for every 25 
feet frcnit. 

CORNING, Private. 

Letter dated Jan. 9, 1880. 

City pays interest on §25.000 for public water. 

Letter of Jan. 10, 1880. 

Portion of receipts collected for public water by gen- 
eral tax. 
Letter of Jan. 12, 1880. 

Says all the towns and villages in that neighborhood 
pay for all J3ublic water. 
NEWBURCH, Public. 
Letter dated Jan. 12, 1880. 

The burden of maintaining hydrants and furnishing pro- 
tection to ail at the expense of a few, is a sore and an 
old grievance. 
Report of 1877. 

Acts and Ordinances. 
Report of 1875. 

Page 12, advantacje of water works. 
" 13, saving in insurance. 

" 14, posterity is to pay principal, and with vastly 
more ability to pay. 
Report of 1879. 
Page 22, each pub. department should pay. 
" 23, water smells bad. 
" 26, pres.sure regulator. 
Laws, Ordinances, relating to the construction of the Roch- 
ester water works, various acts also relating thereto. 


SARATOGA, Private. 

Letter of Jan. 9, 1880. 
We tax non-consumers where the mains are laid before 
their premises and all within HOG feet of a fire hydrant. 

Laws, Acts and F.y-Laws. 
SYRACUSE, Private. 

Letter dated Jan. !), 1880. 

City pay for water for all public purposes, except fire pur- 
poses, and iov this receive $25,000 — now want $40,000. 
TROY, Public. 
Report oi' I <S7G. 
Charge two cents per running foot for vacant lots. 

WARSAW, Private. 

The village })ay water works foi- water for fire purposes. 

Acts, Ordinances and By-Laws. 


CONCORD, Public. 

Report of 1878. Rage 4. 

Great saving from loss by fire. 

Report of lS7n. 

Page 19. Danger of well water. 

" 40. Pays $60 for each fire hydrant per year. 
" 41. Report on Iron Cement Pipe. 
Report of 1874. 

Page 42. Street sprinkling $1 per 1000 square feet. 
" 43. Meter rates. 



Letter of January 9, 1880. 

Suit brought by Water Company to prevent city hav- 
ing of hydrants free. The Water Company came 
out ahead. 


PATERSON, Private. 

Letter of Jan. 10, 1880. 

Charge city S37 per hydrant. 
Report of Passaic of 1879. 

Vacant lots along pipe lines pay 10 cts per 100 square 
feet lying within 100 feet of pipe line. 

TRENTON, Public. 

Report of 18G7. 

Laws, Ordinances, By-Laws, &c. 


EUREKA, Private. 

Letter of Jan. 3, 1880. 

Have made a contract with the town by which they 
are compensated for all water used, including fire pur- 



Report of 1875. 

Page 114. General Laws, Acts, Ordinance. 
Report of 1876. 

Pages 75 to 94. Ordinances and Acts in full. 

" 96. Street sprinkling 20 ct.s per lineal foot per 



Report of 1877. 

Page 8. Cost of works §2,402,354.43; revenue, S152,- 

Page 9. Bonded debts, 81,725,000. 

" 10. Tax on real and personal property to pay in- 

Page 19. Water rents various cities. 



Report of 1875. 

Statute Laws of Ohio, Acts, Ordinances. 
SANDUSKY, Public. 

Letter of Jan. 10, 1880. 

Private companies in Oliio charge for water for fire and 
other public purposes. 
Report of 1870. 

Page 7. Protection from fire and reduces insurance. 
" 44, 45, 46. " " " 

" 52. State Law and Acts. 

64. Street sprinkling carts, per square for the 
season, $6. 

TOLEDO, Public. 

Letter Jan. 8, 1880. 
We tax property so much per lineal foot. 
Laws, Acts, Ordinances, Rules, &;c. 
Report of 1877. 
Page 25. Bad smell to water. Filteration. 
27. Bad quality of well water. 

Laws, Acts, Ordinances in full. 
Report of 1879. 

Acts, Oi-dinances, By-Laws and Regulations. 
Letter Jan. 10, 1880. 

Pointing out the injustice of supplying public water 
free. (Very interesting remarks.) 


ALTOONA, Private. 

Letter dated January 8, 1880. 

Non-consumers pay half minimum rates. 

1 14] 


Report of 1869. 
Charter, By-Laws. 
Page 11. Fire Hydrants, $25 each. 

Letter dated Jan. 7, l!SSO. 

Allowed to collect a protection tax; also, get pay for 

firt' hydrants. 


All liiiildiugs in front of which water pipes are laid 
.shall pay a protection tax of S2. 
MEDIA, Public. 
Letter, Jan. !i, J8.S0. 

Assess projierty in front of which water pipe is laid; 
also, charge protection tax and for ail other public 

Letter, Jan. 9, 1880. 

Private water companies in this state have power to 
contract with the city authorities for any amount they 
may agree upon for public water. 
Rates for 187">. 

One-third of full water rat^s charged to non-consumers 
along line of pipe and buildings within 1000 feet of fire 
hydrant, one-sixth of full rates. 
TOWANDA, Private. 
Letter of Jan. 9, 1880. 

Borough to pay S.">0 for each hydrant. 
TIOGA, Private. 
Letter of Jan., 1880. 

Collect !i<2.5 per hydrant. 
Letter of Jan. 14, 1880. 

The city paid water company S45,500 for the perpetual 
use of 50 hydrants. 

f 1.^ I 


BRISTOL, Public. 

Letter dated Jan. IG, 1S8(). 

No corporations in Rhode Island are required to furnish 
free water for public purposes. 

Report of 1879. 

Pays $30 each for 1103 hydrants. 
Sprinkling carts (2 horse) per week, $12. 

" (1 horse) " $6. 


AUSTIN, Private. 

City pays $80 for each hydrant. 
SAN ANTONIO, Private. 

Letter of Jan. 7, 18S0. 

The laws of this state do not compel water works com- 
panies to furnish any public water free. Get $100 for 
each hj^drant. 



Report of 1877. 

Page 18. Water Rates. 
" 19. Fire Department pays $1,285. 
" 21. About good hydrants. 
" 22. Good advice to select public officers. 
This report contains many good suggestions. 
HYDE PARK, Private. 
Letter dated Jan. 8, 1880. 

Collect pay for every purpose, pubHc or private. 

Report of 1873. 

Page 18. Water furnished by water companies always 
purer than the average well water. 
" 19. The greatest advantage a city or town can 
have is an abundant supply of good water. 




From Schedule of Rates. 

The wat«r tax upon property to which water is not sup- 
plied, situated upon streets along which water mains are 
laid, shall be one-fourth of 1 per centum of its assessed 

NORFOLK, Public. 

Report of 1878. 

Page 12. Fire Department, Street Department and 
Board of Health should all be charged with 
their proportion of water. 
" 35. Rates. 


WHEELING, Public. 

Report of 1S78. 

To pay interest on loan they tax all property along line 
of water pipe. 

Acts, Ordinances and By-Laws. 



Letter of Jan. 7, 1880. 

All public buildings, parks and fountains are assessed on 
the same basis as private property. Street sprinkling 
is paid for by charging each cart, while in use, S40 per 
month, and water used for extinguishing fires, &:c., is 
covered by a charge of S20 per annum per hydrant. 

Report of 1876. 

Pages 67 and 68. Extract from the City Charter show- 
ing the law for the collection of water rents. 



Lake Tahoe and San Francisco 





MARINE ROCKS, AS succp:ssfui-ly accompi.isiied by 


B Y 


OCTOBER 1, 1871. 




Lake Tahoe and San Francisco 


Comfilimitils of 

J^. W. Von Schmidt, 
(fihicf (fiinniufcv 

Lake Tahoe & San Francisco Water Works, 



OCTOBER 1, 1871. 


529 California Street, 




Lake Tahoe and San Francisco 





OCTOBER 1, 1871. 


529 California Street, 


San Francisco, Cal., October 1st, 1871. 

To the President and Board of Directors of the Lake Tohoe and San Fran- 
cisco Water Works. 
Gentlemen : — At your request I herewith submit to you a Report 
on the water supply of Lake Tahoe, the proposed lines of your 
Company's works for the supply of mines, towns and cities, to- 
gether with estimated cost and sources of income, as follows : 


liake Talioe, the main source of supply of the Lake Tahoe 
and San Francisco "Water Works, is located in the Sierra Nevada 
Mountains, at an elevation of 0,220 feet above the level of the 
sea, and covers an area of two hundred and forty square miles. 
Its greatest depth is 1.500 feet. 

The quality of the water is probably the purest of any in the 
world, being produced from melting- snows and mountain streams. 
The surrounding mountains are mostly of granite formation. 

The only outlet of the Lake is the Truckee River, which flows 
during the dryest time of the year, in ordinary seasons, 800,000,000 
gallons of water per diem, and for some months, during tlie floods, 
more than three times that quantity. 

To guard against dry seasons, a Dam has been constructed by 
the Company, on the Truckee River at the outlet of the Lake, with 
suitable gates, for the purpose of storing the water, by preventing 
the floods from escaping out of the Lake and running to waste, 
at the same time allowing the necessary amount of M'ater to flow 
doM'n the Truckee River for the use of mills and manufactories. 
The Lake will flU to the capacity of this Dam in one ordinary 


The quantity of" water thus stored will be immense, and will be 
better understood by staling that one loot of water drawn from 
this Lake in a year, will give one hundred and thirty-seven million 
gallons ))er day. 

The Lake will be raised by said Dam six feet above low water 
mark or about one foot above high water mark, it will then give 
six times 137,000,000 gallons, or 8:2-J,000,000 gallons per diem, 
without interfering with the natural or ordinary flow of the 
Truckee River, that is after the Lake is once filled to the height 
of the Dam. 

A second Dam has been constructed on the Truckee liiver, at a 
point three and three-quarter miles below the Dam at the Lake, 
at which second Dam the water is diverted from the river and 
taken into a Canal. 

Independent of the Lake, there are several creeks or streams 
which the Company can draw water from during the rainy season, 
and while the snow is melting in the Spring of the year, namely : 
Bear Creek, S(iuaw Valley Creek, Deer Creek and Ilardscramble 
Creek, all of these streams are on tiie east side of the mountains, 
and are tributaries of the Truckee River below the Lake. 

On the west side of the Sierras, the Comi)any has several tri- 
butaries of the American river, which aifurd quite a large supply 
of water in the Sjiring and early Summer months. It will there- 
fore be understood that water from Lake Tahoe will only be 
drawn, when these streams fail to supply the amount of water 
required; it is estimated that the Company will only require to 
draw tiom Lake Tahoe, about eight months out of the twelve. 


The Company's title and ownershiii to the waters and right of 
wav is acquired and confirmed under and by virtue of the Incor- 
poration Laws of the State of California, and by an Act of Con- 
gress of the United States, passed July 20th, L"^(i(), entitled " An 
Act granting the right of way to Ditch and Canal owners, over 
the Public Lands, and for other purposes." 

The right of way over the lands of the Central Pacific Railroad 
Company is not yet complete, owing to the fact of the final loca- 
tion of the Water Company's line of works not having been sur- 
veyed throughout the entire route. 

A Franchise has been granted to the Company by the Board of 



Supervisors of the City and County of San Francisco to lay pipes 
in the said City and County of San Francisco. 

Similar rights to lay pipes can be obtained in other towns and 
cities en route, in the event that the Company does not contract 
for their supply directly with the authorities of such cities and 


To make the waters of Lake Tahoe available, the following 
work is necessary to be done: 

The water from the Dam at the outlet of the Lake will flow 
down the Truckee liiver, three and thrce-cjuarter miles to the 
Company's second Dam on the river, at which point it is diverted 
from the river into a canal to be constructed, six miles long, 
through which it flows to the entrance of the proposed Tunnel at 
Hardscrainble Creek, through the Sierra Nevada Mountains. 
Tiie Tunnel by this Hardscramble Creek route is 20,400 feet, or 
five miles long. The water Irora the said canal enters and flows 
through this Tunnel coming out on the west side of the mountains 
.at a point a short distance above the Soda Springs (so called) on 
the Soutii Fork of the North Fork of the American Kiver. 

Several other routes for a Tunnel have been surveyed, that at 
the head of Cold Stream, surveyed for Railroad Tunnel, is 24,172 
feet long, with an open cut half a mile long of an average depth 
of twenty feet; to reach the entrance of this Railroad Tunnel it 
would require nine miles more canal on the east side of the moun- 
tains, making fifteen miles of canal from said second Dam to en- 
trance of Tunnel or cut. I am therefore of opinion that the 
Hardscramble route, although longer than some of the other lines, 
is by far the most preferable; so far as can be seen and judged of 
from the surface of the ground, the Hardscramble route is appa- 
rently free from Granite, the rock appears to be a volcanic stone, 
called by some "Cement Rock," it works and stands well. 

Tiie lines of the Company's works from the Tunnel will be as 

For mining purposes on the Main Ridge lying between the 
North and Middle Forks of the American River, the water is 
taken from the Tuiuiel and conveyed in a large Ditch say (for 
500,000,000 gallons of water) fifteen feet wide at the bottom, 
twenty-seven feet wide at the top, and six feet deep, net water 
line, on a grade often feet to the mile where the lay of the ground 


will permit such a grade, along the backbone of said Ridge to the 
several mining camps thereon, viz: Iowa Hill, Michigan Blutts, 
Yankee Jims, Forest Hill and other places in that vicinity. It is 
estimated that it will take about forty miles of ditch to reach 
Iowa Ilill, from which place smaller ditches can be run- as re- 

For the supply of towns and cities the water after leaving the 
Tunnel at or near Soda Springs, on the west side of the mountain, 
will rtow down the granite bed of the American River about 
twelve miles, where it will be taken from the river, and conducted 
in a suitable canal a distance of about forty miles, to a point near 
Auburn, in Placer County, at which point it will enter a Reservoir 
of convenient size to be constructed for that purpose. Leaving 
this Reservoir the water will enter a large wrought iron pipe, and 
by that means be conducted to the City of San Francisco, via 
Sacramento, Fairfield, Vallejo and Oakland. 

The Canal to Auburn will have capacity to carry 100,000,000 
gallons per day. The length of pipe from Auburn to San Fran- 
cisco will be about one hundred and twelve miles, making the 
total distance ot actual line of works to be constructed to reach 
San Francisco, one hundred and sixty-three miles. 


I have estimated the cost of Tunnel through the Sierra Nevada 
Mountains as follows, viz: 

Circular Tunnel ten feet diameter, with a fall of ten feet to the 
mile, the contents of which are 78,-53!) cubic feet to each foot in 
leno-th— or '2.'J cubic yards to each riuining foot— the length of 
Tunnel is 26,400 feet, multiplied by 2.0 gives 70,500 cubic yards 
at mMi per yard, or 20,400 feet at $31.50 per foot gives 8S31,000 
Add contingent expenses tliereon, say 25 per cent. 207,900 

Total cost of Tunnel 

The cost of Ditch or Canal I estimate as follows: 
East of Sierra Nevada Mountains, six miles at ^20,000 

., . $120,000 
per mile ^ ' 

West of Mountains forty miles at $20,000 i)er mile. . . 



Cost of Reservoir to be constructed at Auburn, $100,000. 

Wrouglit iron pipe from the Town of Auburn to the City of 
San Francisco; I have stated the distance per line at one hundred 
and twelve miles, but to allow for curves I add eight miles more> 
making one hundred and twenty miles of pipe, for the cost of 
which I give copy of estimate furnished me, as follows: 

"Vulcan Iron Works Company, office 135 and 137 Fremont 

"San Francisco, February 24th, 1870. 
"A. W. Von Schmidt, Esq. 

"Sir: — The approximate cost of the pipe line to be constructed 
"will be as follows : 

"40 miles of 5,280 feet each, of water pipe 5 feet 

"diameter, of quarter inch iron $2,576,076.80 

"40 miles of 5,280 feet each, of water pipe 4 feet 

" diameter, of quarter inch iron 2,117,772.80 

"40 miles of 5,280 feet each, of water pipe 3 feet 

"diameter, of quarter incli iron 1,692,008.80 

"120 miles $6,386,758.40 

"The pipe will be made here in sections of thirty feet length, 
"which will have to be riveted togetiier on the ground; above 
"figures include the riveting together of the sections, but not the 
'' cost of transportation. 

"The weight for one mile of pipe will be respectively 931,040 
"lbs.; 745,360 lbs.; 568,480 lbs. 

" Respectfully yours, 

" Per Henry J. Huttner." 

This pipe is calculated to deliver at least 20,000,000 gallons of 
water per day in the city of San Francisco, at an elevation of 
three hundred and seventy feet above the city base. I estimate 
the cost of laying the pipe at $200,000 ; and the transportation 
thereof at $100,000. 

It will however be observed that a large portion of this pipe 
can be less than a quarter inch in thickness; again, to save expense, 
the pipe should be made on the ground near where it is to be 
laid, thus avoiding the cost of hauling and transportation. The 


dipping in Af?phaUum can also be done on the ground, the ex- 
pense ot which will not he great, and I have included it in the 
above estimate. 

To bring the water to the City of San Francisco, in addition to 
the above cost must be added the tunneling of the Straits of 
Carquines, amounting say to §300,000. 

And extra work crossing tlie Bay of San Francisco which I es- 
timate at 8000,000. 

I propose to cross the 15ay of San Francisco in the following 

1. — I tlrive two rows of piles in pairs, si.K feet apart one 
way and one hundred feet apart the other way, across the Bay 
from shore to shore. I put the pipe together on a small railroad 
on the Alameda shore, the outer end thereof being closed up; as 
fast as I put the pipe together, I float it out on the surface of the 
water in a line between the two rows of double piles, where it 
remains; section alter section is so added until the pipe reaches 
from shore to shore; while this pipe is being so floated across the 
Bay, an air ])ressure is kept thereon to prevent water from the 
outside filling it before the wiiule distance across the Bay is 
laid. When the pipe is ready to be lowered I stop the air supply 
and gradually fill the pipe with water which will cause it to sink 
to the bottom of the Buy and soon form its own bed; the pipe 
being guided by the doable row of piles on either side will of 
course settle down in a straight line, all the pipes will have flexible 
joints which will permit them to form a considerable angle w ith- 
out breaking or leaking. 

This method has been successfully used in crossing the Schuyl- 
kill River, at Philadelphia, (see annual rcj.ort of the Chief Engi- 
neer of the Water Department of the City of Piiiladelphiu, pre- 
sented to the Council, February ICth, 1871, on ])age 14) wideh 
says: "This plan was patented by Mr. Jno. F. Ward, of Jersey 
City, a contract was accordingly made with that gentleman, and 
the Main has been successfully laid. It is thirty-six inches diam- 
eter, has a moveable joint of simple and peculiar construction, 
which admits its being sunk length after length from a scow, by 
suitable skids and derricks. 

The inside of the bell of the pipe is turned smooth to a spherical 
form, the small end of the pipe has grooves in it to retain the lead 
■when the pijies are put together, a lead joint is cast and caulked 


in the ordinary way. The smoothness and form of the inside of 
the bell ])ermit3 the requisite motion, the lead joint slipjnng upon 
tliat, whilst it is retained firmly by the grooves in the small end 
of the pipe." 

I state the above to prove that the laying of submarine pipes 
has already been successfully accomplished, however I am of 
oi)inion that my plan of floating the pii)e out from the shore is 
better than that of laying it out of a boat or scow. 

In relation to the cost of line for mining purposes only, I esti- 
mate the forty miles of canal from the Tunnel, along the Ridge 
above mentioned, at $20,000 i)er mile, making $800,000, add to 
this the cost of Tunnel as given at $l,O:}!),r)0O, cost of Canal on 
east side of Tnnnel $120,000, and twenty-five per cent, of the 
whole for ccmtingent ex])enses, gives a total of $2,449,37.5, cost of 
line for mining purposes only. 


For line of works from Tuhoe to San Francisco, 

Cost of Tunnel $1,0.30,500 

" " Canal East of Tmiiiei 120,000 

" " Canal West of Tunnel 800,000 

" " Reservoir at Auburn 100,000 

" " I'ipe from Aubuin to San Francisco G,;>SG,7.'')8 

" " Laying Pipe 200,000 

" " Transportation thereof. 100,000 

" " Tunnel Straits of Carquines 3r)0,000 

" " Crossing Bay of San Francisco 500,000 

$9,5 96,258 

S.ay for total cost of line to San Francisco, $10,000,000. 

For Mining purposes onhj. 

Cost of Tunnel $1,039,500 

" " Canal East of Tunnel 120,000 

" " " West" " 800,000 


Contingent expenses, 25 per cent 489,875 

Total, $2,449,375 



For loth purposes. 

To the City of San Francisco § 9,596,258 

Add the Cost of Canal along the Mining Ridge for 

Mining purposes 800,000 

Total 810,39(1,258 


The Company will derive an Income from the sale of water for 
ITydraulic Mining; for water power for Mills and Factories along 
the line of works; for irrigation; and for the supi)ly of Towns, 
Villages and Cities. 

Only a few miles below the western end of the Tunnel, are lo- 
cated ^ ast and rich gold fields of gravel and cement deposits. On 
the ridge lying between the North and South Forks of the Ameri- 
can River, (the proposed line of the Company's works,) exists the 
largest and best gravel deposit known in the State of California. 
For richness it is conceded by all to be unsurpassed. The area of 
this immense and rich dejiosit is estimated to be over BO miles in 
length, and an average of about seven miles in width, making in 
the aggregate an area of 210 square miles. This deposit is from 
fifty to four hundred feet in depth, yielding the precious metal 
from top to bottom. It will however be understood, that in this 
immense deposit there is some cement formation very rich, but too 
hard to be Avorked |by the hydraulic jnocess, requiring mills for 
crushing, but it is fair to estimate that one-fourth of the entire 
ground can be washed. It has been proved that from a few cents 
lip to eight and ten dollars to the cubic yard can be relied on. 
Portions of this ground have been worked whenever a sujiply of 
water could be procured, during the rainy season, and always 
yielding a large ))rotit. It is well known that if a constant sup- 
ply of water could be obtained the whole year, it would be one of 
the most prosperous ]\Iining Districts in this State, if not in the 
Country ; untold millions of wealth would be j)roduced that is 
now liidden for the want of water. No other supply than that 
from J.,ake Tahoe can be procured in quantity for want of sufficient 
elevation. It is safe to say that this mining ground, with all the 
■water that can be brought upon it or made available, cannot be 
worked out or exhausted in a hundred years. 


Miners calculate the sale of water by the inch. I calculate one 
miners' inch of water, •with a six inch head, to run 14,400 gallons 
in twenty-four hours, or at the rate of six hundred gallons per 
hour. (See statement of J. V. Martin, in the Sacramento Daily 
Union of May 2d, 1871.) 

The gold-bearing district referred to, will aflbrd sale for at 
least 40,000 miners' inches of water per day throughout the year, 
at ten cents per inch. 

I therefore estimate the income from the sale of water as fol- 
lows, viz. : 

For Mining Purposes Only. 

I have calculated the quantity of water to be drawn from the 
Lake at 500,000,000 gallons per diem. 500,000,000 gallons daily 
would give, say, 34,722 miners' inches daily. The present price 
per inch, for a day"s work of eleven hours, is twelve and a half 
cents, sometimes more. 1 will, however, calculate at the very low 
figure of ten cents per inch per day of twenty-four hours, which 
will give the following : 34,722 inches, at ten cents per inch, is 
3,472 20 per day; equal, in one month of twenty-six working 
days, to the sum of $90,277 20 — this, for one year, would 

amount to $1,083,326 40 

Deduct exi^enses for the year 120,000 00 

Makes net profit per year $903,326 40 

If, however, the Company's works are completed for mining 
purposes, and for the supplv of towns and cities also, then only 
four hundred million gallons of water would be used for mining 
purposes, and one hundred million gallons for towns and cities, 
in which event the revenue from mines would be as follows : 

400,000,000 gallons daily gives 27,777 miners' inches daily. 

27,777 inches, at ten cents per inch, is $2,777 70 per day; or, 
in one month of twenty-six days, $72,220 20 — this, for one year, 

would amount to $866,642 40 

Deduct expenses for year 120,000 00 

Leaves net profit per year, on 400,000,000 gallons. $746,642 40 


From Towns and Citie*. 

I estimate the income from towns and cities as follows : 

Sacramento City, one month §4,000 00 

Oakland " " 4,000 00 

San Francisco " " 40,000 00 

Monthly income §48,000 00 

flaking total income from towns and cities for one 

year amount to 8570,000 00 


From the sale of 500,000,000 gallons of water daily, 
for one year, for mining purposes only, expenses 
deducted" '. $903,3-26 40 

From Towns, Cities and Mines. 

From the sale of 400,000,000 gallons of water daily, 
for one year, for mining jturposes, ex])enses de- 
ducted $740,042 40 

From the sale of 100,000,1)00 gallons daily, for one 
year, to towns, cities, etc 570,000 00 

81,322,042 40 

Deduct yearly expenses of line of works for towns 

and cities 200,000 00 

Gives total net income $1,122,042 40 

The foregoing estimates of receipts may be regarded as very 
low indeed, especiall}' for tlie city of San Francisco. The yearly 
revenue of the Spring Valley Water Works, at present supplying 
the city, is ?9(I0,000, from a daily supply of not more than 
0,500,000 gallons of water. Judging from past years, it may be 
safely estimated that there will be an increase of receipts from 
this city of full ten per cent., or $100,000 per year. At this rate 
of increase, we have, say five years hence, from San Francisco 
alone, a revenue of 81,400,000 j)er year, according to present 
jjrices, which I consider much too high, and I have therefore only 
estimated the revenue from this city at $40,000 per month. 


No mention is made of many smaller towns en route to be sup- 
plied, among others Auburn, Fairfield, Vallejo, Mare Island and 
Benicia, from wliich no inconsiderable revenue may be derived. 
The income from mines is also estimated at the lowest figure, 
and I have only mentioned the first sale of water, whereas it is the 
well known right and custom of Water Companies to gather the 
same water and sell it over aerain at decrcasina; rates. 

I have estimated to take .'jOOjOOOjOOO gallons of water per day 
from the Lake. The present Dam at the outlet will admit of 
822,000,000 gallons being taken daily, the water in the Lake 
having been raised six feet. As I before remarked, each foot of 
the Lake gives 137,0()l),000 per day, if therefore, any additional 
supply of water is rccjuired, the Dam at the outlet of the Lake 
can be raised an additional two feet, at an expense of not more than 
$2,.500. The evaporation will not be materially increased thereby. 
This would be the limit that the Lake could be raised without caus- 
ing damage to the low lands at the southern end of the Lake. 

When the Lake is once filled the surplus water will flow over 
the waste weir of the Dam, and run down the Truckee River as 

For the past two years, the water of the Lake has been lower than 
ever before remembered, running to waste only 80,000,000 gallons 
per day, at its lowest stage, whereas when I measured it in the 
month of September, 1865, it run to waste 800,000,000 gallons 
per day. 

This shows the great necessity of storing the water in the Lake 
by means of a Dam as I have described, to guard against dry 

I would further state tha<^ I have purposely made the estimates 
of the cost of works very large, so as to guard against the many 
contingencies that may unavoidably have been overlooked or 
occur, in an enterprise of such magnitude in a rough mountainous 

In an Addenda to this Report, I have given certain statistics 
and general information as to the Mining District on the C'om- 
pany's proposed line of works, furnished me by reliable gentlemen 
whose well-known acquaintance with the subject make their 
statements well worthy of full credence. Many more confirma- 
tory reports could be obtained, but the facts are so well and gen- 
erally known that I consider it unnecessary. 


The actual quantity of tlie miners inch of water lias never been 
definitely fixed, it varies in different districts from about 14,000 to 
17,000 gallons per day, also in the size of the opening and head 
of water, in accordance with custom and usage, scarcely any two 
authorities agree upon this subject, and I liave given in the former 
portion of this Report what I consider a fair and just estimate, 
and near enough for all practical purposes. 

In conclusion, I beg leave to state, that I know of no other 
enterprise which will pay a better or surer rate of interest on the 
amount of capital to be invested, or that will be of greater bless- 
ing to the greatest majority of the people of California, than the 
utilizing of this unfailing and abundant supply of pure^water. 

All of which is most respectfully submitted, 


Chief Engineer, 
Lake Tahoc and San Francisco Water Works. 


W. Van Vactor, an old resident of Placer County, and for many- 
years County Assessor of said County, in a report on the Mining- 
District between the North and Middle Forks of the American 
River, the Company's proposed line of works, says: 

"The following is the amount of gold taken out in the year 
18G6, from the section of Country your Canal would command 
when coni]ileted. Tlie amount here given is what was shipped 
through tlie different Express offices, and what was carried out by 
private hands from January 1st to December 31st, 18GG. 

"Iowa Hill, by Express $1G8,G33 92 

"Iowa Hill, by private hands 23,100 00 

"Michigan Bluff, by Express 400,000 00 

"Michigan Bluff; by private hands 31,000 00 

"Forest Hill, by Express 307,000 00 

"Forest Hill, by private hands 28,000 00 

"Todds' Valley, by Express 148,482 00 

"Todds' Valley, by private hands 15,000 OO 

$1,176,215 92 

The amounts given as passing through the Express office are 
the exact figures taken from the books in those offices. The 
amounts by private hands are a little under the true estimate. 

The amount paid by miners during the same period for water 
was about $100,000. 

The present supply of water for the above named localities is 
as follows : 

Iowa Hill District including all of Township No. 7, Placer 
CoTinty 1,300 inches per day. 

Michigan BlnfFs including all of Township No. G, 1,400_ inches- 
per day. 


Forest Hill, Todds' Valley and Yankee Jims, including all of 
Township No. 5, 4,000 inches per day. 

Township No. 8, the southern part of which could be su])plied 
from your Canal, has a few small ditches that run water during 
the season of the melting of the snow, which furnish a daily sup- 
ply of about three hundred inches for a short period. 

This makes a total supply as you will see of 7,000 inches i)er 
day, for the whole section. 

This is the maximum sujijily and cannot be relied on, in the 
most favoraljle seasons, for over sixty days in each year. One- 
half this supply might be kept uj) in a favorable season for seventy- 
five days, and one third for ninety days. Many seasons it does 
not reach 7,000 inches for a single day, and frccpiently one-thu'il of 
the hydraulic miners do not get five days run during the whole 

Aside from this very serious difficulty in regard to the short 
time the present limited supply of water continues each year, in 
working the mines, situated so as to be accommodated by the 
Ditches furnishing tlie same, there is another that could not be 
obviated providing they furnished an ample sujtply, and that is, 
the ditches are too low to be used in working these mines, this 
difficulty applies to over half the Mining Country. This fact is 
very important for you to know in making your calculations as to 
the amount of water that could be disposed of from your can il. 

Your Canal Avill reacli the toj) of the main divide at a j>oint 
sufficiently high to command all the mining land of this section 
above mentioned, providing you could furnish enough water to 
supply the demand. 

It is the j)revaiiing opinion among the miners here that you 
could sell every inch of water you can bring on the divide, and 
I have no doubt of this fact myself, but lest you might consider 
this opinion rather extravagent and not altogether warranted by 
the facts, I will here intrude a few figures and calculations, that 
I think will satisfy you that this opinion is not far out of the way. 

First. If miners who are now working claims by means of Hy- 
draulics could obtain the water to justify, they would enlarge their 
oi>erations to use four times the amount of water now used. For 
example, the claims that now use one handred inches would en- 
large to use four humlred inclics, with a very large increase of 
profits in propoi lion. 


This is a fact that no miner will dispute, then ; taking this as 
true, the miners that are now working by the hydraulic process 
would, if your canal was completed, instead of using 7,000 inches 
in the aggregate, use four times that amount, viz., '28,000 inches 
per day; this, at fifteen cents per inch for sixty days, the length 
of time water now lasts, would be $25(),0()0 per season, and for 
the length of time your canal could furnish it each year, say three 
hundred days, would be $1,200,000. 

Second. There are now as many claims in this same section 
being worked by drifting as those worked by hydraulicing, that 
would change and hydraulic their claims if water could be had. 

This would require 28,000 inches more water, making in the 
whole 50,000 inches per day. Value, at same rate, ibr sixty days, 
$500,001) ; and for three hundred days, $2,520,000. 

It will be observed that in this calculation I have only consid- 
ered the mining ground that is so situated to be worked from the 
ditches now in use, were it possible for them to furnish water 
sufficient. This, as I have heretofore observed, does not comprise 
one-half of the mining land that could be worked if your canal 
was completed as proposed, and water could be Inrnished to sup- 
ply the demand. 

I think that those figures M'ill satisfy you that you need have no 
fears of not disposing of all the water you can bring into this 

Tiie miners are exceedingly anxious to have you bring water 
here sufiicient to supply them winter and summer, would do any- 
thing in their power to encourage the enterprise, and would hail 
the completion of this great work as the greatest blessing that 
could be bestowed on this comminiity, and a lasting benefit to the 
whole State, as it would without doubt be a source of immense 
revenue to your Company. 

(Signed) W. VAN VACTOR." 

Copy of letter written by Mr. Philipp Deidesheimer, Mining 
Engineei', to Alvinza Hayward, Esq., to wit : 

" San Francisco, May 23d, 1870. 
A. Hayward, Esq. — Dear Sir : — I beg to call your attention to a 
project of mine, which I have carefully thought over for many 
years and well considered, and whicli to carry out, practically and 
successfully, the proper opportunity seems now to have arrived. 


According to my judgment, based upon the long experience I 
have had in all sorts of mining enterprises, this is one of the most 
simple and strictly legitimate that has ever come under my ob- 
servation, and I will therefore lay it before you in short and plain 
language, and conscientiously endeavor to i)oint out to you its 
magnificent inducements for a profitable investment. 

The mining district in question (of which I shall speak in detail 
more hereafter) is, as you know, located in Placer County, Cali- 
fornia. It includes your valuable mining pro])erty at Forest Hill, 
consisting of a rich bod of gold-bearing gravel, 1,G00 feet front by 
4,000 feet in depth, and an average heighth of 150 to 450 feet, 
which has been prospected by means of a tunnel, commenced in 
1854, now "2,700 feet long, the key to that entire mining district, 
exposing, to a large extent, a wonderfully rich deposit of gold. 

There is no further doubt in my mind that many millions of 
dollars are hidden in this grand deposit, and in order to get them 
out, I propose to you as follows : 

To get the control of all the water that can be brought to and 
made available of, for this district. Having done this, you will 
be able to control the whole mining region, already prospected, 
extending over thirty miles in length (E. and AV.) seven miles 
in width (N. and S.), and about four hundred feet depth, all con- 
taining a deposit of more or less gold-bearing gravel. Part of 
this plateau, of which Forest Hill is about the best, has been for 
many years, and is now, being worked very disadvantageously, on 
a primitive and small scale. 

i\Iost of the Comjtanies working this district have, for the last 
eighteen years, extracted large amounts of money, under all pos- 
sible disadvantages, of which is chiefly, the scarcity of water, yet 
successfully was it done in early years by mere drifting, latterly 
by hydraulics. 

The quantity of water used for this purpose was indeed very 
small, for instance, the ditches supplying Forest Hill, Todds' Val- 
ley, Yankee Jims and other companies, amounting only to 1,500 
inches, running from three to four months only of the entire year, 
and yet sustained at high wages, a p()j)ulation of several thousand 

Most of this water is sold at ten cents an inch per ten hours, 
but miners are anxious to jiay twenty-five cents for it jier twenty- 
four hours, if it were to be had all _the year throughout. To ex- 


plain this more satisfactorily, a verbal exposilion of the connect- 
ing details, would imicli facilitate the clearness of the point, which 
I mean to come at, and which is this, that (excepting Lake Tahoe) 
the only living water that can be brought into this district at 
comparatively small expense, is the water claimed by you, namely, 
the "South Fork of the North Fork of the American Hiver," and 
which stream could on an average, to suit all purposes, easily pi'o- 
vide for 5,000 inches all the year round. 

The ditch to bring it would have a length of about thirty-eight 
miles, and could be built with Chinese labor, canal six by eight 
feet, within six months, at an ex})en8e of about one hundred and 
fifty dollars per mile. This stream of water, brought to Forest 
Ilili, and hydraulically applied to several of the most favorable 
points, the proceeds of washings would certainly amount to sixty 
dollars per mile ]ier month, for a great number of years (say over 
tlirco years of the Baltimore front ground alone) — meanwhile 
AV'ith these earnings I would propose to buy the Todds' Valley 
Ditch, the Oro, Dardanelle and Yankee Jims' Ditches, also some 
good jniniiig ground joining Baltimore claim, which I have already 
carefully and econfimically jilanncd out, and could be accomplished 
at low figures. With these additional ditches and ground secured 
for the purpose only to control the valuable mining grounds sur- 
rounding them, the proceeds of the washings could be made to 
average about one hundred and twenty-five dollars per mile per 

The ditch is not constructed with the view of selling water to 
other mining Companies (which in case of necessity could be done 
at twenty-five dollars per mile per month) but chiefly as a means 
to get hold of the richest mining locations and deposits along its 
course, and thus secure a large extent of gold-bearing ground, 
which, well managed, will have a value of untold millions in the 
course of a few years, and hold out for generations to come. 

In addition, I further propose to build a wagon-road connect- 
ing with the railroad, ten miles shorter distance than the present 
road in use, which can be built for twenty dollars per mile, and 
pay for itself in two years. 

The drifts to be run in all the richest strata of the ground, 
would ensure a handsome income, independent of the hydraulic 
works and facilitate the working of these. 


The whole project I umlertake to set into successful operation, 
witiiin ten months from this, if commenced at once. 

The manner in which the funds rcquircMl for this undertakint^ 
are to be raised, is to be personally discussed, and cau no doubt 
be arranged on a most profitable basis. 

The amount recpiired to be advanced within ten months will 
not e.vceed two hundred dollars per mile. 

I recommend this proposition to your best consideration, and 
am ready any time to explain points which here may not be intel- 
ligibly enough expressed. 

This grand enterprise is deserving of all our energy that we can 
bring to bear upon it, it will, when in full operation, stand ahead 
of all other enterprises of this coast and conliiietit. 

It will be a mine of wealth, and a source of pride and satisfac- 
tion to its owners and projectors. 

Most respectfully, 


The Auburn IS/ars and Stripes in an article published in March, 
referring to the 8up))ly by the Lake Tahoe and San Francis- 
co Water Works, for Mining purposes in Placer County, says : 

'■ In this connection we are in receipt of a letter from Iowa 
Hill, dated March loth, containing facts and estimates, from a 
gentleman, whose standing in the community, recognized intelli- 
gence, and facilities for obtaining correct information, entitle bis 
statements to respect and interest." 

He says : " There is on this divide, between the North and Mid- 
ille Forks of the American River, the most extensive range of Hy- 
draulic gravel de])osits that can be, or has ever been found in the 
State, extending lengthwise of the ridge fifteen or twenty miles, 
divided by deep Canons affording good outlets for working the 
gravel deposits on the different ridges, which dejwsits vary from 
half a mile to three miles in widtli, making an average width of 
the deposits on the main divide, of about five miles, presenting an 
area of more than seventy-five square miles of good gravel deposit 
(50,000 acres). As to the quality of the gravel it is generally con- 
ceded by experienced miners from other localities who have visited 


this section, examined tVie clKiracter of the gronnd, noted the fa- 
cilities we have for working, and who, to a certain extent, have 
practically tested tlie matter by ]jros])ecting, that this divide con- 
tains the best Hydraulic Mining Ground in the Slate. 

The whole capacity of all tlie Ditches on this Divide is about 
7,000 inches, the average time which the miners are enabled to 
work at Hydraulic Mining is about three months, or one-fourth of 
the year. The average amount of water used during said three 
months is about 3,000 inclies, the average yield of the mines on 
this Divide for the last four years, has been about $1, '200,000 jier 
annum. Deducting one-third from this sum as the probable yield 
of Tunnel or Drift claims, we have a balance of $800,000 as the 
proceeds of Hydraulic Mining for three months with 8,000 inches 
of water per day. If witli ;iO,000 inches ])cr day during the whole 
year — which we are assured is a low estimate of what the Lake 
Tahoe Company can afford us, and with the additional facilities 
for working {i. e. a higher elevation of the water giving more fall 
or hydraulic pressure, and enabling us to work richer ground, 
wliich is now above the line of the water supply, and the ad- 
vantage of working during the warm weather, when gold will 
best amalgamate and thus a greater portion be saved,) the proceeds 
from the mines on this divide will equal the yield of all the bal- 
ance of California combined, as the I'acts and figures will fully 

As regai'ds the amount of water required to work the mines on 
this divide, 30,000 inches per day would be but a limited supply 
furnishing say, one hundred Companies with an average head of 
three hundred inches. 

Three times that amount of water could be used to advan- 
tage (if such supply could be obtained) for fifty years at the 
very least. We have had but little water this season, the water 
companies endeavoring to accommodate as many as they can by 
furnishing different Companies alternately, a day or two at a time, 
so as to give all who have been to the expense of fitting up, an 
equal chance for working, but we are in hopes for the welfare of 
this section, and the balance of the Country, as well as the pros- 
perity of the whole State, that ere long we will receive a good 
supply of water, when tlie memories of early California days will 
be revived." 


Ig^^ The following Report was 
handed to the "San Francisco 
Evening Bulletin" for publica- 
tion, and all the paragraphs in- 
closed by brackets were omitted. 







JUNE 31, 1876. 


To the Stockholders of the Spring Valley Water Works: 

The facts which I have the honor to submit here- 
with warrant congratuh^tion upon the prosperous con- 
dition of the Company. 

During the past year the Upper Crystal Springs Dam 
has been constructed to the height of twenty -eight 
feet. Its expense has somewhat exceeded our esti- 
mates, for the reason that we were compelled to sink 
from ninety to one hundred nnd eight feet to obtain a 
satisfactory foundation for the puddle pit instead of 
from thirty to forty feet, as estimated. It will be 
raised to fifty feet during this season, and will make 
a reservoir capable of storing four thousand million 
gallons. [An addition of twenty-five feet (making 
seventy -five in all), which ca,n be made at any time, 
will give it a storage capacity of 7,500,000,000 gallons, 
or 500,000,000 greater capacity than that of the pres- 
ent San Andreas Reservoir.] 


"We have on hand at present in tlie — 

Crystal Springs Reservoir 1,200,000,000 gallons. 

San Amlreag Reservoir 5,000,000,000 

Pilarcitos Reservoir 1 , 000, 000, 000 ' ' 

Making a total of 7,260,000,000 gallons. 

I estimate tlio consumption from this supply up to 
the 20th Xovember next at 12,000,000 gallons per 
day, equal to 1,800,000,000 for the next 150 days. 
To this add 300,000,000 loss by evaporation, and we 
have 2,100,000,000 to deduct from the 7,300,000,000 
on hand, which will leave us at the commencement of 
the next rainy season 5,200,000,000 gallons. 

We have obtained our supply, up to the present 
time, from ten and a half square miles of watersiied : 
by the construction of the Upper Crystal Springs 
Dam we add fifteen square miles thereto, and we will 
acquire and store therefrom not less than 7,000,000,- 
000 gallons during the next rainy season, to which add 
the supply on hand at the commencement of the rains, 
makes 12,200,000,000 gjillons with which to com- 
mence the dry season of 1877, or more than a two 
years' supply. 

[The water-shed from which we derive our supply is 
remarkably free from impurities. No other water-shed 
supplying water to a large city is so advantageously sit- 
uated. This must continue so long as the Company 
owns and controls, as it now does, the larger portion 
of the land, aggregating about 20,000 acres, and ripa- 
rian rights in addition, to a very much larger quantity.] 


The Lower Crystal Springs Dam will not be re- 
quired for many years. The upper dam will enable us 
to meet any possible demand during the next five or 
six years, and by that time we should have completed 
such substantial conduits and tunnels from the Calave- 
ras water-shed as will furnish 40,000,000 gallons per 
day to the Crystal Springs Reservoir, or 35,000,000 
gallons per day to the San Andreas Reservoir. This 
work can be accomplished by the expenditure of about 
$4,000,000. By an additional disbursement — not 
exceeding $2,500,000 — 35,000,000 or 40,000,000 
more per day can be delivered from Calaveras to 
the reservoirs named, without taxing more than one- 
half of its resources. [Mr. Scowden's report shows 
that from December 2d, 1874, to March 1st, 1875 
(120 days), 12,347,817,000 gallons of water passed the 
point selected for the dam at the outlet of Calaveras 
Valley. Our Engineer, Mr. Schussler, erected a guage 
at the same point, at the commencement of the rainy 
season of 1875-6, which shows that upwards of 58,- 
000,000,000 gallons passed during the season, (see 
table appended to this Report showing rainfall and 
quantity passing the gauge per day), and that, too, 
from less than 100 of the 235 square miles which 
can be utilized, and which will perpetually furnish by 
gravitation more than 100,000,000 gallons of water 
per day, when required, by an expenditure not exceed- 
ing $6,000,000; whereas, to obtain a like quantity 
from any other known source, on the gravitation plan, 


hi a imnner eqmlhj si(bstantial, will cost nearly if not 
quite $75,000,000.] 

[For these immense resources, within thirty miles of 
our present works, we gave $1,000,000 in 7 per cent. 
twent3'-year bonds. The property could not have been 
bought for less than was paid for it. It can be sold 
now for a mucli larger sum ; is, in every way, the best 
investment the Company ever made; and, notwith- 
standing the efforts that have been made to impress 
the public with the belief that it was a bad purchase, 
the results will prove beyond the possibility of cavil or 
doubt, the wisdom and propriety of the transaction 
and the enormous value of the propert}'.] 

The rain-fall during the past season was as follows: 

At San Audreas 71.37 inches. 

At Piliiieitcs Go. 28 

At Upper Crystiil Springs 48. 11 " 

At Caliiveras 40.50 " 

At San Francisco U3.48 " 

During the past year we have laid 12J miles of pipe, 
at an expense (independent of the cost of the pipe) of 
$42,570 65. This quantity, added to 147^ miles pre- 
viously laid, makes very nearly 160 miles of distrib- 
uting mains laid within the city limits. Wo have on 
the way from New York 9,000 feet of 22-inch cast-iron 
pipe. It will probably be in place by the middle of 
August next, connecting with the 22 -inch wrought- 
iron pipe laid last 3'ear through Valencia and ilarket 
to Potter Street. It will extend easterly along Mar- 
ket Street as far as Sausome Street, and will add so 


materially to our pressure that elevators now con- 
nected with our pipes will, we hope, be enabled to 
run without interruption. But, in any event, I think 
further connections of this sort are not to be encour- 
aged. Elevators use a large quantity of water at 
once, and so reduce the pressure that water will not at 
all times discharge into the supply tanks on the tops 
of the high buildings in certain portions of the city. 

[The fact that no water works in any other city in the 
United States have a pressure sufficient to operate eleva=- 
tors, shows the superiority of our works in this respect, 
and also demonstrates that San Francisco is better pro-' 
tected against fire, so far as zvater stipply is concerned, 
than any other city in this country or elsewhere, with 
perhaps one exception, the city of Glasgow in Scotland."] 
I may add that we propose to leave in place the pres- 
ent main with its connections from Potter Street, 
tlirough Market to Sansome Street, and to employ the 
new 22-inch pipe when laid as a reserve force, con- 
necting it with the present pipe at the junction of 
each street running to Mission Street on the south 
side, and Van Ness Avenue and others intermediate 
to and including Sansome Street on the north side of 
Market Street. 

There has been a disposition in some quarters to re- 
gard our charges as arbitrary and exorbitant. With 
regard to the first objection I have only to say that it 
has been our effort to deal justly and fairly with our 
patrons, without discrimination or prejudice, and our 


rates are based upon experience in the business, which 
is all we can rely upon in its conduct. Notwithstand- 
ing the fact that monej'^ has been worth from 30 per 
cent, to 12 per cent, per annum during the entire ex- 
istence of this Company, Us net receipts kave not aver= 
aged 7 per cent, per annum on the actual capital in= 
vested. [Our charges may appear exorbitant when com- 
pared with water rates charged by municipal corpora- 
tions owning their own water works. In San Francisco 
the water supply is obtained from a private corporation, 
and the expense of supplying the city and its inhab- 
itants with water and of protecting the entire prop- 
erty therein against destruction by fire, is borne by less 
than 16,000 of its 270,000 inhabitants; whereas, if, 
as in New York and other cities owning their own 
water works, the whole property therein (it being all 
protected and made valuable by reason of the water) 
contributed each its mite, as an insurance tax to 
make up the interest on the cost of the works, and 
to create a sinking fund with which to liquidate the 
principal, the consumers would be relieved of the 
larger portion of the burden they are now obliged to 
sustain, and would only have to pay per annum what 
they now pay per quarter. The tax or water rate, when 
levied and collected by the city as other taxes are, is 
paid without demurring, or the creation of prejudice 
such as now exists against our attempt to make the cap- 
ital in this corporation pay a fair interest. The disposi- 
tion to criticise and find fault with the management of 


our business, probably as much as any other considera- 
tion, led to the passage by the last Legislature of two 
Acts relating to water, one enabling the city of San 
Francisco to acquire water works, and the other appoint- 
ing a Commission to regulate the price at which this 
corporation shall sell its commodity. We are advised 
that the last-named Act is clearly unconstitutional and 
void. In the case of San Francisco vs. Sping Valley 
Water Works (48 Cal. Rep., p. 531), Mr. Justice Mc- 
Kinstry says: "I agree with Mr. Justice Crockett and 
Mr. Justice Rhodes that the Legislature can neither 
pass a special Act granting powers or privileges to a 
particular corporation created under the general law 
which are not enjoyed by all other like corporations 
under the same law, nor pass a special Act limiting or 
burdening with peculiar conditions the rights or pow- 
ers acquired by a particular corporation from the gen- 
eral law. * * * The Legislature coiild neither con= 
fer a benefit nor impose an obligation on the Spring 
Valley Water Works not conferred or imposed on all 
ivater companies by the general laiv. To confer a spe- 
cial benefit or impose a special obligation would be 
equally destructive of the uniformity which it is the 
object of Section 31 of Article 4 of the Constitution to 
secure." It seems to us that the Legislature might, 
with equal propriety, appoint commissioners to regu- 
late the price at which the Mission Woolen Mills shall 
sell its manufactures, or by sumptuary laws regulate 
and restrict the quantity of water and the number of 


blankets the citizens shall enjoy. The Spring Valley 
"Water Works has received no franchise, rights, favors, 
or privileges from the city or the State which are not 
equally accessible to any corporation or individual de- 
siring to furnish water to the inhabitants of San Fran- 
cisco. We supply water for the extinguishment of fires 
free of charge, though it costs us a large sum annually. 
Yet when we ask a very reasonable compensation for an 
unlimited additional quantity used in beautifying the 
public parks and squares, for hospitals, school-houses, 
and municipal buildings, the people are instructed that 
we are extortioners, monopolists, and general enemies 
of the human race. The Gas Company, whose mains 
are laid in the streets and which is in every way ac- 
commodated as much as, if not more than, this Com- 
pany, contributes nothing in return, but receives more 
than $300,000 per annum from the city, though its 
commodity is not as expensive, useful, or necessary as 
the one we furnish.] 

[It has been asserted that we are under obligations to 
supply water to the city for municipal purposes free of 
charge, because under the "Ensign Act" we agreed 
to do so. That Act also provided that "the rates 
agreed upon and fixed by a majority [of the Commis- 
sioners appointed thereunder] shall not be so low as to 
yield less than twenty per cent, per annum on the actual 
capital invested in said works." Unfortunately for us, 
the Supreme Court of this State has decided (see 48 
Cal. Rep., pp. 514-515) that the "Ensign Act" is un- 


constitutional, and that we must take our place with 
all of the other water companies in the State, under 
the general law, which provides that we must furnish 
water in case of fire, or other great necessity, free of 
charge. In the opinion in the case above referred to, 
Mr. Justice Crockett says: "Tested by the general law 
under which the Spring Valley Water Works is organ- 
ized, it is under no ohliyation to furnish water to the city 
and county free of charge, except for the extinguishment of 
fires during the pendency thereof y In this case the city 
applied for a rehearing, which was denied in an elab- 
orate opinion, in which Mr. Justice McKinstry special- 
ly concurred, and said: "I express no opinion as to 
the precise meaning of the phrase 'other great neces- 
sity.' On the former appeal, and before I came to the 
Bench, it ivas held by all the Justices qualified to sit in the 
case, that these umds did not include every municipal pur- 
pose. I shall assume that the construction given by 
the Court is correct."] 

During the past year we have furnished about 4,504,- 
000,000 gallons of water, an average of nearly 12,500,- 
000 gallons daily. AYe have made 1,G81 new service 
connections, 311 more than were made the year 
previous. Our total indebtedness amounts to nearly 
$2,700,000, the interest on which, as at present placed, 
amounts to about $225,000 per annum. I think it 
can be reduced to $190,000 very soon, and perhaps less. 
Our estimated income for the year ending June 1st, 
1877, is $1,350,000. 


[I am confident that our present system for furnish- 
ing the city of San Francisco with water is much the 
best that can be devised, and I see no reason why this 
Company, properly managed, can not go on prosper- 
ously, and fully equal all the city's requirements for 
water during the entire future.] 

[In conclusion, I beg leave to quote a paragraph from 
Mr. Schussler's " Report on the Various Projects for 
Supplying San Francisco with Water." He says — 

' ' I have no hesitation in saying that the Spiing Valley "Water 
Works, with their present and contemplated works, presents the 
only sensible and practical solution of the problem of supplying 
the city of San Francisco with an abundant supjjly of pure fresh 
water. It owns and controls all the sources of supjily on the 
peninsula which can be economically utilized, together with all 
the desirable reservoir sites thereon ; and by the Calaveras pur- 
chase it secured the next most economical somce from which a 
large sujjplj' can be derived, and which altogether, with projier 
development, will furnish more than 125,000,000 gallons per day 
perpetually, and that, too, at an cxjiense of not more than one- 
third of what it will cost to obtain, on the giavitation jjlan, a 
like quantity from any other source ; and when the works have 
been thus develoi^ed, they will fonn the only basis for utilizing 
the water of the Sierra for supi)lying the inhabitants around the 
Bay of San Francisco."] 

Very respectfully, 

President Spring Valley Water Works. 





Nov. 1. . 




5. ., 




22. .. 
28 . . . 
29.. . 
30. ... 



per day. 



.0.15 50 

.4.00 1,300 

.3.50 5,600 

.1.50 2,200 





.0.10 100 



.0.30 150 




Total 11,030 

Date. in 
.. inches. 

Dec. 1 0.60 


16. . 
17 . 
18. . 
22. . 
31. . 





per day. 
. . 100 
.. 80 

.. 70 

. . 50 
. . 45 

. . 38 
.-. 36 
.. 35 

,. 33 
.. 32 
. 31 
. 30 
. 29 
. 28 
. 27 
. 26 

. 26 
. 25 
. 25 
. 150 
. 210 
. 80 

. 390 
. 210 
. 150 
. 210 




Jan. 1. 













per day. 

.. 210 
.. 640 
. .2,350 
.. 680 
.. 820 
. . 940 
.. 680 
.. 400 
.. 250 
.. 200 
.. 160 
. . 130 
.. 110 
.. 90 

.. 60 
.. 55 
.. 95 

.. 150 

.0.22 1,920 


.0.41 400 






Total 17,435 

Feb. 1. 














.1.63 . '. . . . . . . 120 

.2.38 120 

.0.30 3,100 


.0.61 510 













Rainfall Milliona 
Date. in gallou 

inches. per day. 

Feb.24 0.58 85 

25 0.03 70 

26 1.08 135 

27 0.19 115 

28 95 

29 80 

Total 8,505 

Mar. 1 65 

2 2.19 180 

3 1.31 4,400 

4 1,700 

5 0.57 800 

6 1.41 800 

7 0.94 1,780 

8 1.36 2,200 

9 940 

10 620 

11 360 

12 0.43 380 

13 350 

14 315 

15 275 

16 235 

17 200 

18 175 

19 150 

20 140 

21 130 

22 120 

23 Ill 

24 102 

25 94 

26 86 

27 78 

28 ! 70 

29 0.34 85 

30 78 

31 72 

Total 17,091 

April 1 66 

2 61 

3 0.15 56 

4..... 51 

5 45 

6 40 

7 0.61 70 

8 65 

9 0.22 58 

10 0.21 50 

11 42 

12 37 

13 35 

14 34 


Kainfall Millions 
Date. in gallons 

inches. per day. 

Apr.15 33 

16 32 

17 32 

18 31 

lit 30 

20 29 

21 0.56 45 

22 43 

23 41 

24 3!» 

25 37 

26 35 

27 33 

28 31 

29 29 

30 27 

Total 1,257 

May 1 25 

2 23 

* 3 21 

4 19 

5 18 

6 17 

7 16 

Kainfall Millions 
Date. in gallons 

inoheB. per day. 

Mny 8 16 

9 15 

10 15 

11 14 

12 14 

13 13 

14 13 

15 13 

16 12 

17 12 

18 12 

19 0.36 20 

20 19 

21 19 

22 18 

23 18 

24 18 

25 18 

26 17 

27 17 

28 17 

29 16 

30 16 

31 15 

Total 516 






















•.. 39.75 





To the American Public: 

The famous Hetch-Hetchy Valley, next 
to Yosemite the most wonderful and important 
feature of our Yosemite National Park, is 
again in danger of being destroyed. Year 
after year attacks have been made on this 
Park under the guise of development of 
natural resources. At the last regular ses- 
sion of Congress the most determined attack 
of all was made by the City of San Francisco 
to get possession of the Hetch-Hetchy Valley 
as a reservoir site, thus defrauding ninety 
millions of people for the sake of saving 
San Francisco dollars. 

As soon as this scheme became manifest, 
public-spirited citizens all over the country 
poured a storm of protest on Congress. Be- 
fore the session was over, the Park invaders 
saw that they were defeated and permitted 
the bill to die without bringing it to a 
vote, so as to be able to try again. 

The bill has been re-introduced and 
will be urged at the coming session of Con- 
gress, which cdiivenes in December. Let all 
those who believe that our great national 
wonderlands should be preserved unmarred as 
places of rest and recreation for the use of 
all the people, now enter their protests. 
Ask Congress to reject this destructive bill, 
and also urge that the present Park laws be 
so amended as to put an end to all such 
assaults on our system of National Parks. 

Faithfully yours. 

November, 1909. 



(Pages refer to more complete information contained in other 
portions of this ])amphlet.) 

The Yosemite National Park is not only the greatest and most won- 
derful national playground in California, but in many of its features it 
is without a rival in the whole world. It belongs to the American 
people and is among their most priceless possessions. In world wide 
interest it ranks with the Yellowstone and the Grand Canyon of the 
Colorado. The Yosemite Park embraces the headwaters of two rivers 
—the Merced and the Tuolumne. The Yosemite Valley is in the 
Merced basin, and the Hetch-Hetchy Valley, the Grand Canyon of the 
Tuolumne, and the Tuolumne Meadows are in the Tuolumne basin. 
Excepting only the Yosemite Valley, the Tuolumne basin is the finer 
and larger half of the Park. Practically all of the Tuolumne basin 
drains directly into Hetch-Hetchy Valley, which is a wonderfully exact 
counterpart of the great Yosemite, not only in its crystal river, sublime 
cliffs and waterfalls, but in the gardens, groves, and meadows of its 
flowery park-like floor. This park-like floor is especially adapted for 
pleasure camping, and i^^ the focus of all the trails from both the north 
and the south which lead into and through this magnificent camp 

The Yosemite National Park was created in 1890 by Congress in 
order that this great natural wonderland should l>e preserved in pure 
wildness for all time for the benefit of the entire nation. The Yosemite 
Valley was already preserved in a State Park, and the National Park 
was created primarily to protect the Hetch-Hetchy Valley and Tuol- 
umne Meadows from invasion. 

In spite of the fact that this is a national property dedicated as a 
public park for all time in which every citizen of the United States 
has a direct interest, certain individuals in San Francisco conceived 
the idea that here would be an opportunity to acquire a water supply 
for the city at the of the nation. They made application to 
the late Hon. K. A. Hitchcock, then Secretary of the Interior, for the 
privilege of using Hetch-Hetchy Valley and Lake Eleanor as reservoir 
sites from which to draw a municipal supply of water. After giving 
the question careful consideration, he denied these rights on January 
20, 1903, and on a rehearing again emphatically denied them December 
22! 1903. (P. 10.) Thereupon a bill designed to override Secretary 
Hitchcock's decision was introduced in Congress but the Committee 
on Public Lands refused to give it standing. The matter was again 
taken up with the President, who referred it to Hon. Victor H. Met- 
calf, then Secretary of Commerce and Labor. He upheld Secretary 
Hitchcock's opinion and again denied the right of the city to enter a 
national park. When Hon. James R. Garfield became Secretary of 
the Interior, the city advocates renewed their efforts to have these 
rights granted which had been so many times refused, and at last pre- 
vailed. Secretary Garfield on May n, T(p8, rendered an opinion so 
prejudicial to the interests of the American public in their National 
Parks, as to practically nullify the whole national park policy and throw 
those great public plavgrounds open to all kinds of destructive in- 
vasion from local and' comparativelv i^rivate interests. Fortunately 
the rights granted by Secretary Garfield, if they possess any legality 

2 Read carefully pp. 20-21 and help to save the Park. 

at all (p. ii) are revocable at the discretion of any Secretary of tlie 
Interior. Armed with this Garfield permit to flood the Hetch-Hetchy 
Valley and destroy its use as a public playground, the Park invaders 
again applied to Congress in December, 1908, to confirm Garfield's 
action and render it irrevocable by securing title to the floor of ITctch- 
Hetchy in fee simple. The matter was referred to the Public Lands 
Committees of the House and Senate for recommendation. While a 
majority vote of eight in the House Committee favored the abandon- 
ment of this priceless national property, there were seven who votetl 
against it, and one other member later joined the minority, making the 
vote a tie. (P. 22.) Many friends of the National Park system were 
ready to champion the people's cause if the bill had reached the floor 
of the House, but the closing days of the session made it impossible to 
have the bill brought up. Before the Senate Committee the bill did not 
fare as well and it became known that, if brought to a vote, the result 
would have been unfavorable to San Francisco and this would have 
been fatal to future attempts to pass the bill. Therefore, the bill died 
with the Sixtieth Congress. 

The same bill has been re-introduced in the present Congress, and 
a last desperate attempt to force it through will be made. 

If San Francisco could not obtain pure water elsewhere, this great 
national sacrifice might be justified, but hydraulic engineers of un- 
questioned standing have reported on many other adequate and avail- 
able sources. In this respect, probably, no large city in the world is 
more favorably situated. (Pp. 4-6.) 

The unnecessary destruction of Hetch-Hetchy Valley is being opposed by the 






And innumerable other leading Clubs throughout America 

.... to permit a municipal corporation to intrench itself in the 
Yosemite National Park, no matter how good that corporation prom- 
';j"ises to be, seems to "The Outlook" an indefensible and dangerous 
^ piece of inconsistency which will be thoroughly bad not only in its 
jj immediate effect but as a precedent for future action. — Editorial in 
K N. Y. "Outlook," January 30, 1909. 

^ Where is the justice in taking what has been already dedicated to 
~ the American public merely to save San Francisco's dollars? 

Read carefully pp. io-2i and help to save the Park. 



"Let us say at once that we hold human life more sacred than scenery, 
than even great natural wonderlands, vastly as they contribute to save life 
and promote happiness ; and if that were the issue, if San Francisco could 
not otherwise obtain an al)undant water supply, we should be willing to 
dedicate to that purpose not only Hetch-Hetchy, but even the incomparable 
Yosemite itself." — Editorial by R. U. Johnson in "Century Magazine." 

One of the first questions asked by those scekinj? information on this 
subject is whether there are other .supplies available for the use of San 
Francisco. There are many. We have always favored going to the 
mountains for pure water. 

Look at a map of California. San Francisco is situated near the 
confluence of the two great rivers of the State, — the Sacramento and 
the San Joaquin. Tributary to these rivers and flowing west toward 
San Francisco down the Sierra are several large rivers, (among them 
the Tuolumne) any one of which will furnish ample water for San 
Francisco. North and South of San Francisco along the coast many 
streams waste their waters in the ocean. It is doubtful whether any 
other city in the world of the size of San Francisco has so many 
available water supplies. It is ridiculous to assert that the only water 
available for San Francisco runs down the Tuolunme shingle of the 
great Sierra roof. 


C. E. Grunsky, former city en>;inccr of Snn Francisco, and sometimes referred 
to as the "Father of the Iletch-Hetchy system," says: 

"In the case of San Francisco, there is no single source of supply so 
pre-eminently available that it could without question rule out others from 
comnarison." — />. 15 of Reforts on Water Suf>t>lics of San Francisco, 1908; 
/>. 385 House Committee Hearings, January 21, 1909. 

Professor C. D. Marx, one of the city's hydraulic experts, has stated that 

"It can readily be shown that the drainage area needed for a water supply 
capable of furnishing 200,000.000 gallons per day can be had on a number 
of the Sierra streams. . . . That the drainage areas of streams north of 
the Tuolumne give better promise of meeting these requirements, cannot 
be denied. ... It cannot t)e said that the physical data now available are 
such as to admit of a rcliabk- comparison of the relative values of the 
various sources of water supply for San Francisco from the Sierras." — 
Transactions of Commonicealth Club, June, 1907. 

"Mr. Phclan — There arc no less than half a dozen water supplies from 
tlie Sierras. . . . Mr, HaminoiVl — We have listened to the engineers, but 
T did not understand that tlic Tuolumne is the only Sierra supply. Mr. 
Pliclan — By no means." — Testimony before the Public Lands Committee 
of the House, January 21, 1909, />. 342. 

"Without a doulit the city can obtain wafer from half a dozen other 
so'Tces which are now owned by private interests. . . ." — p. 36. 

"It is simply a question of which of the various sources of supply is the 
bc^t one for the city of San Francisco to take. . . ." — p. 38. 

"Without doubt the cilv the riglit. under California law. to condemn." 
— p. 38. Secretary Garfield in hearing before Public Lands Committee of 
House, January 9, 1909. 

"We do not deny that there are other sources of supply up and down 
the Sierra Nevada Mountains, . . ."— /, D. Galloway, p. 387, Hearings, 
January 21, 1909. 


Read carefully t>p. and help to save the Park. 

In a brief filed by the San Francisco city attorneys in June, 1909, in the United 
States Circuit Court, Ninth Circuit, Jiquity Case No. 13,395, appears the follow- 
ing language used in behalf ol the city in that suit (pp. 520-523) : 

"The testimony discloses that several other substitutes (for the Tuolumne 
system) are available for the use of San Francisco." . . . (Elaborate quota- 
tions from the testimony arc made [o demonstrate this fact.) "It appears 
from the evidence, therefore, that the Tuolumne is but one of the several 
possible sources from which a sub^lilutional supply might be obtained." 

"When you consider the matter of money alone, there are available 
quite a number of sites and a number of sources, probably more than a 
dozen." — Marsden Manson, City Engineer of San Francisco, Senate Hear- 
ings, f. 123. 

James D. Schuyler, h>draulic engineer of Los Angeles, says that there are 
"A number of other available sources of water supply for San F'rancisco." 
— Hearings, January 20, I9f)8, />. 307. 

"... It is feasible to provide an ample supply of pure water for San 
Francisco from nearer sources (than the Hetch-I letchy) by works which 
would be nuich more economical, cfiicient, and rclial)le. . . . They can be 
developed to supply all the water required for the next 40 or more years." 
— Frederick P. Stearns, Chief Engineer of the Al etrol'olilan Water Board 
that suf>plies Boston (/>/•. 308, 311, Jonrnal of the Association of Engineer- 
ing Societies, December, 1908). Schuyler and Stearns were consulting 
engineers on the Panama Canal. 

"I do not consider that the Tuolumne (Hetch-Hetchy) supply would 
furnish a greater quantity of water, nor a water of better quality, than can 
be obtained from nearer sources." — Rudolph Hering, the hydraulic en- 
gineer of Nezu York and Philadelphia {testimony in Equity Case No. 

Colonel W. H. Ileuer, U. S. A. Engineer and chairman of the Executive Com- 
mittee of the Federated Water Committee of San iM-.incisco, states that the 
present nearby sources 

"Can be increased by additional dams and raising some existing dams, so 
as to supply considerable more than 100 million gallons per day, or more 
than enough to supply the wants of San h'rancisco during the next forty 
years, and at reasonable cost. . . . Engineers who made surveys of Lake 
Eleanor and Hetch-Hetchy inform me that there are other Sierra supplies 
which can be brought here at much less cost than Hetch-Hetchy. The 
latter by persistent advocates has been preached, almost forced, into ac- 
ceptance by the people of San Francisco." — San Francisco Merchants' As- 
, sociation Review, July, 1908. 

This view receives further corroboration from C. E. Gnmsky (pp. 164-6, 
Sept. '08, Journal of the Association of Engineering Societies) , Prof. Geo. David- 
son, U. S. Coast and Geodetic Survey, and other engineers. San Francisco now 
uses only 35,000,000 gallons per day. 

On the Feather River is the Big Meadows reservoir site of about 20,000 acres. 
At the outlet of the Meadows the topography is such that by the construction 
of a comparatively small dam a storage reservoir can be created which will be 
one of the largest artilicial bodies of water in the world, having a capacity of 
over 280,000 million gallons, or four times the greatest capacity of the Hetch- 
Hetchy reservoir. This water could be brought to San Francisco if necessary. 



The precedent involved is one most dangerous to the welfare of the national 
parks generally, and the establishment of a reservoir in Hetch-Hetchy will compel 
a tremendous sacrifice in notable scenery and in public recreation grounds. 

Every citizen who believes in preserving the integrity of our national parks, 
everyone who regards these scenic treasures as national resources, hitherto 
supposed to be safeguarded for the benclit of all the people, should protest. 

Object to the surrender of any public land in any national park, and urge the 
need of extinguishing all private claims through purchase by the government. — 
By Appalachian Mountain Club, 

Read carefully pp. 20-21 and help to save the Park. 5 



1. Advantage of the STANISLAUS RIVER as a source of supply for San 
Francisco: — Collecting basin "adequate in area, with pure waters" (Marsden 
Manson, City Engineer). River rises in high granite mountains similar to 
Tuolumne and not in a national park. No scenery comparable to Hetch-Hetchy, 
Tuolumne Canon and Meadows, hence no danger of contamination from increas- 
ing tourist travel; rainfall heavy; watershed protected by forest reserve; pipe 
line to city shorter than to Tuolumne supply; ample storage at Donald's Flat, 
Relief, and Kennedy reservoir sites; dams already constructed by Stanislaus 
Power Co., and to be constructed, thus insuring uniform maximum flow of 
water. Power company will sell ample power to pump water over coast range 
practically at cost. Saving by having dams and power plants already built will 
offset the comparatively small cost involved in purchasing full right to water. 
Company has guaranteed water rights and supply of water equal to all of city's 
requirements. City has paid no attention to offer to build system and dehver 
water for ten per cent added to bare cost. 

2. Advantages of the EEL RIVER as a source of supply.— Uninhabited 
mountain watershed in forest reserve, 3-^5 square miles tributary to diversion 
point; 268 square miles tributary to Gravelly Valley reservoir; water rights 
guaranteed perfect ; average annual rainfall, 50 to 60 inches ; capacity of reservoir 
with 150-foot dam, 70,000 million gallons, or twice the capacity of Hetch-Hetchy 
Valley' with the same height of dam; dam crest. 600 feet; 1500 feet of drifts 
already run demonstrate good character of dam' foundation ; lOO-foot dam \yill 
be completed by fall of 191 1 ; tunnel already constructed diverts flow to Russian 
River basin. Water can be diverted at waste gates or allowed to flow down 
Russian River to Cloverdale gravel beds and filtered naturally and piped to San 
Francisco via San Pedro and San Pablo Point crossing. This crossing can be 
accomplished bv flexible pipe lines similar to those which have been in service 
at Dumbarton for twenty years. San Pablo crossing is only a little longer and 
deeper, and cost of lines carrying 60 million gallons daily has been estimated to 
be onlv about $1,500,000. Distance to distributing reservoirs less than Tuolumne. 
Gravity system following California and Northwestern Railroad grade, saving 
excessive costs of transportation and heavy pipe. Water would be taken 
through Berkeley and Oakland, thus supplying all bay cities at smallest expense. 
A M Hunt an engineer familiar with water problems of San Francisco, reports 
that this water supplv is ample and can be brought to the city for one-half the 
expense of bringing in an equal amount from Tuolumne system. Power company 
offered to sell water rights to city for very small figure, but city paid no attention 

^"^'''pumping from SAN JOAQUIN RIVER as source of supply.— When nearby 
sources (which unbiased engineers report can be developed to three times present 
daily use of citv) are exhausted, by pumping from San Joaquin River just below 
Altamont city can secure all the additional water she wants free of cost; can 
filter to anv degree of puritv; saving in head works, length of pipe line, rights ot 
way water rights, power plants, etc., would more than offest fixed pumping 
charge and cost of fihration. Supply is always available and need not be 
resorted to until necessity arises. 


8.— AMERICAN R1\'ER. ^^^..t^ -Drm 


\\'e do not contend that all of these supplies are suitable, but many 
of them are. 

while the Yosemite National Park might very properly be 
sacrificed to save the lives and health of the citizens of San Fran- 
cisco, it ought not to be sacrificed to save their dollars.— Editorial in 
N. Y. "Outlook," January 30, 1909. 

6 Read carefully pp. 20-21 and help to save the Park. 

Direct Effect. — To flood the floor of the valley as proposed will 
destroy its use by the public. The floor of this valley is four and a 
half miles long, averaging half a mile in width and almost level. It is 
beautifully wooded, being pronoimced by Mr. George Frederick 
Schwarz, forestry and landscape ex])crt, who studied in forest schools 
of France and Germany, after a careful examination, as "the most 
beautiful natural i)arkland" he had ever seen, and tiiat in its wonderful 
forest growth of great variety and magnihcent development it sur- 
passed the Yosemite Valley itself. 

It is one of the three great canq) grounds in tiie Park — the others 
being Yosemite Valley and TuoUumie Meadows. All of the trails in 
this portion of the Park radiate from Hetch-Hetchy. It is the natural 
^gateway to the wonderfully beautiful mountain region lying and 
north of the valley. The walls of the valley are steep, perpendicular 
Yosemite-like cliffs. The Commonwealth Club of San h'rancisco, 
through a committee ap])ointed to investigate this very (|ucstion, 
recently rei)orted as follows : 

"More important tlian the loss of scenic Ijeauties we consider the loss of 
the opportunities of public enjoyment of them. At present any one may go 
and freely camp in the Hetch-Hctchy Valley and stay as long as his in- 
clination permits. If the valley is made into a reservoir, however, the 
camping-grounds will be destroyed as a place to visit, and the Hetch- 
Hetchy Valley will have been taken from the camper's map. . . . 

"The importance of the Hetcli-1 Tetchy Valley as an entrance path into 
the upper Sierras lias been very strongly urged by those who presented 
their objections to Congress. While Iletch-lictchy is now used for such a 
purpose by but few, it is probable that it would be so used by a very much 
larger number in the future, if the valley remained available. To the extent 
that this is true, the flooding of the valley is a serious matter to the 
mountain-climber. It is the natural camping base and the natural place 
for rest and recuperation from fatiguing journeys into the upper territory." 

Imagine the floor of Yosemite Valley Hooded ! Where would there 
be the possibility of visiting the place and enjoying it. Every argu- 
ment in favor of flooding Hetch-ITetchy is equally applicable to flood- 
ing Yosemite itself. There are no camping possibilities on or near 
the steep walls or clift"s of Hetch-Hetchy. There is one small shelf 
above the lower end of the valley where a few could be accommodated. 
Feed for animals would last but a few days. The Superintendent of 
the Park informed us that though he wished to do so, he could not 
camp there for lack of drinking water, which disappears early in the 
season. Along the traveled approach to the valley, the nearest camp- 
ing places for parties of any considerable size are from eight to ten 
iniles distant. 

.... If the Hetch-Hetchy Valley is turned into a reservoir, it 
will be for the pvirpose of supplying the city of San Francisco with 
water for drinking, washing and industrial purposes. These pur- 
poses cannot be hygienically carried out vsdthout careful supervision, 
not only of the Tuolumne River and the beautiful camping meadows 
near its head, but also of the watersheds on the north and south. — 
Editorial in N. Y. "Outlook," January 30, 1909. 

Read carefully pp. 20-21 and help to save the Park. 



Indirect Effect. — Tmvc hundred .sc|uare miles of the Park drain 
directly into the proposed ninnici])al system. Immediately above the 
valley itself and extendin;^ to the very source of the Tuolumne River, 
which flows through the Hetch-llctchy, is the most wonderful .scenery 
in the Park, including as it does the Grand Canyon of the Tuolumne, 
nearly a mile deep, with its stupendous cliffs and waterfalls, and the 
magnificent Tuolumne Meadows at the head of the canyon, which are 
by far the most delightful and interesting high mountain camp grounds 
in the High Sierra. Travel to all of these natural wonders will be 
restricted if a municipal water sy.stem is allowed to store water which 
drains from these camp grounds. 

Mar-sden Manson, the city engineer, in an official report on this sys-' 
tern says "that at no time in the future can conditions arise tending to 
impair the purity of the water flowing therefrom, tc7iiV/j can not be* 
rigidly controlled." Think of a city controlling all the people of the 
Luiited States in their enjoyment of their own park! 

"Argument is scarcely necessary to indicate the impossibility of permilling 
public access to a reservoir intended to furnisli a domestic water supply to any 
large center of population. The danger of pollution which would thus result 
would make the water supply thus acquired a menace instead of a benefit to the 
people of the city involverl. One case of 'walking typhoid' on the borders of the 
lake proposed to be established as a reservoir could start an epidemic of typhoid 
fever in the city to be supposedly benefited, causing the loss of hundreds of inno- 
cent lives. Countless experiences prove the correctness of tliis statement. The 
city of Reading, Pennsylvania, has had eight hundred cases of typhoid fever 
within less than eight weeks through the pollution of a supposedly guarded 
water supply. The epidemics at Plymouth, at hhaca and elsewhere are well- 
known to have resulted from exactly the conditions which might be expected in 
respect to the city of San I'rancisco. It is thus apparent that full public access 
to the lake and the valley in which it shall be created can not be had if the health 
of the people of the city of San Francisco is of any importance to those who are 
seeking this water supply. 

"Not only in the reservoir itself would danger from pollution exist, but a 
greater danger would arise through the possible pollution of the watershed feed- 
ing the reservoir proposed. A single case of 'walking-typhoid' again affecting a 
camper, or stroller, or ordinary visitor, who had acquired that typhoid on his 
way into the park, could make the proposed water supply a source of desperate 
danger to the city supposed to be benelitted. Nothing is better established in 
modern sanitary science than that the watershed of any domestic water supply 
must be jealously guarded and kept free from human occupancy at all times if 
that water supply is to result in other than the dissemination of disease and the 
bringing aliout of untimely death. No suggestion is made that the city of San 
Francisco has considered the fdt ration of the supposed water supply just pre- 
ceding its use, but much urgency is put ujion the purity of the supply which is to 
be obtained within the Yosemite National Park. It is therefore obvious that if 
this purity is to be maintained, the whole watershed of the Hetch-Hctchy and 
Lake Eleanor reservoir sites must be given up to the purposes of the domestic 
water supply of the city of San Francisco. I am credibly informed that this 
involves the taking of an area but slightly less than half of that of the whole 
Yosemite National Park it.self. If this be the intention of the proponents of this 
plan, it should be so definitely stated and the country should know that nearly 
one-half of an area of unequalcd natural beauty, set aside by Congress as a great 
Tiational park and playground, is to be given up to the purposes of the city of 
San Francisco, without any showing publicly made that there is no other source 
of water supply which would be less expensive to the people of the United States, 
whose propcrtv it is thus proposed to divert."— By J. Horace McFarland, Presi- 
dent of American Civic Association, who has given the subject of sanitation of 
municipal water supplies careful consideration. 


Read carefully /'(>. 20-21 and hclf> to save the Park. 


The park invaders object to these other available water suppHes be- 
cause the water power rights have largely passed into private owner- 
ship. This is the crux of the whole situation. (See article by Marsden 
Manson, .City Engineer, in Culijoniia Weekly, June i8, 1909.) The 
same paper says editorially : 

"It is the po.ssibility of a power supply that makes this proposition pre- 
eminently attractive." 

"... (lie otlicr water supplies were all in private ownership. Of course the 
city conld condemn and acquire these supplies. . . ." — Mr. Phclan's testimony 
before Public Lands Cnmmittec, U. S. Senate, p. 26. 

Both Mr. Phelan and Mr. Manson, tlic City Engineer, say, "it is a matter of 
money." (p. 386, House Hearings.) 

"There are no less than half a dozen water supplies from the Sierras, hut they 
are all obstructed by ownership, devcloimients made by power companies, used by 
power companies. . . ." — Mr. Phelan, House Hearings, f- 342. 

The development of power does not con.sume water. It is still avail- 
able for the city. The city would have to buy ])0wer for pumping. 
This expense would be offset by the fact that the city would not have to 
expend millions of dollars in construction of dams and power plants 
The power companies have done and will do this. In .short, the city 
asks the nation to make her a priceless gift in order to save her.self 
from having to pay the difference between the cost and the market 
price of water power. 

The creation of the park has heretofore prevented the private acqui3i- 
tion of the power and water rights in Hetch-Hetchy. The city has 
slumbered while other power and water rights in the Sierra have been 
acquired by others. In order to save a few dollars the city now demands 
the sacrifice of a national park and would .selfishly destroy a wonder- 
land which wise and patriotic foresight has preserved all these years 
for the American people. 

Landscape gardens, places of recreation and worship, are never 
made beautiful by destroying and btirying them. The beautiful lake 
forsooth would be only an eye-sore, a dismal blot on the landscape, 
like many others to be seen in the Sierra. For, instead of keeping 
it at the same level all the year, allowing Nature to make new shores, 
it would of course be full only a month or two in the spring, when 
the snow is melting fast; then it would be gradually drained, exposing 
the slimy sides of the basin and shallower parts of the bottom, with 
the gathered drift and waste, death and decay, of the upper basins, 
caught here instead of being swept on to decent natural burial along the 
banks of the river or in the sea. Thus the Hetch-Hetchy dam-lake 
would be only a rough imitation of a natural lake for a few of the 
spring inonths ; an open mountain sepulcher the others. 


The advocates of this plan for securing water are loud in their 
protestations that a mere handful of nature lovers who visit this region 
now are trying to stand in the way of the acquisition of a pure water 
supply for the "poor widows and orphans of San Francisco" and the 
half million who live about the bay. This accusation is unqualifiedly 
false. There are none more anxious than we that San Francisco should 
own and control a bountiful supply of the purest mountain water. As 
we have pointed out elsewhere, it is not necessary for her to invade and 
di.smember a National Park in order to do this. 

Read carefully pp. 20-21 and help to save the Park. 9 

"It is proposed to convert Lake Eleanor and Hetch-Hetchy Valley, 
respectively, into reservoirs for the storage of a water supply for the 
city. Both are admittedly scenic features of the Yosemite National 
Park. . . . Hetch-Hetchy Valley is widely known for its wonderful 
natural conditions and marvelous scenic interest. . . . 

"The Valley proper is about three and one-half miles long and of 
a width varying from one quarter to three quarters of a mile. The 
rugged granite walls, crowned with domes, towers, spires and battle- 
ments, seem to rise almost perpendicular upon all sides to a height 
of two thousand five hundred feet above this beautiful emerald 
meadow. . . . 

"If natural scenic attractions of the grade and character of Lake 
Eleanor and Hetch-Hetchy Valley are not of the class which the law 
commands the Secretary to preserve and retain in their natural con- 
dition, it would seem difficult to find any in the park that are, unless 
it be the Yosemite Valley itself. In the absence of the clearest expres- 
sion to the contrary, it is inconceivable that it was intended by the 
Act of February 15, 1901, to confer any authority to be exercised 
for the subversion of those natural conditions which are essential to 
the very purjioses for which the park was established. 

"Presumably the Yosemite National Park was created such by law 
because of the natural objects, of varying degrees of scenic importance, 
located within its boundaries, inclusive alike of its beautiful small 
lakes, like Eleanor, and its majestic wonders, like Hetch-Hetchy and 
Yosemite Valley. It is the aggregation of such natural scenic features 
that makes the Yosemite Park a wonderland which the Congress of 
the United States sought by law to preserve for all coming time as 
nearly as practicable in the condition fa.shioned by the hand of the 
Creator — a worthy object of national pride and a source of healthful 
pleasure and rest for the thousands of people who may annually 
sojourn there during the heated months. 

"Having in view the ends for which the Park was established and 
the law which clearly defines my duty in the premises, I am constrained 
to deny the application." 



Upon the policy of surrendering the Hetch-Hetchy Valley and its surroundings 
to the use of the city of San Francisco for water supply, allow me to express 
to you my conviction that sucli appropriation should not lie made. 

Permit me also to recall that (Inrinj? the Harrison administration these reser- 
vations, in connection with Yosemite Park, were discussed and advanced, with 
the system then inaugurated of pmtectins our natural and wonderful scenery 
and our forests and other resources. It took lahor and moral courage to with- 
stand the fierce opposition of local interests to do this. 

Among the most important reservations secured were these now asked for a 
city to be abandoned. It ought not to be done. The city has abundant water 
supply other than the reservoir to iic constructed licre. and it is not necessary 
to give this up. 

There is a growing public opinion in favor of a strict l>rcscnatio» of what has 
alrcadv been redeemed for national reservations; and an appropriation of this, 
one of the chief works of John Muir's patriotic foresight, will be deemed a sur- 
render of the national policy and a return to the idea that the nation has nothing 
that cannot be appropriated to other interests sufficiently persistent in assertion. 


carefully />/>. and help to save the Park 



The Act of i8go creating the Yosemite National Park was a special act having 
for its object the preservation of Hetch-Hetchy Valley and other wonders of 
the park in their natural condition, and none of its terms could have been 
repealed by the passage of the general law of 1901 authorizing the granting of 
rights of way, etc., by tlie Secretary of the Interior unless that intention were 
expressly declared in the general act, and there is no such language to be found 
in the act. Only rights of way, etc., which will not destroy the natural condition 
of wonders of the park are within the contemplation of the act of 1901. 

It is the opinion, therefore, of many lawyers of high standing that: 

"The action of the Secretary of the Interior of May 11, 1908, in grant- 
ing the permit to flood Hetch-Hetchy Valley, was without authority of 
law. Such was the opinion of his predecessor in office. Honorable E. A. 
Hitchcock, (letter to the President of February 20, 1905), who was sup- 
ported by the opinion of Honorable V. H. Metcalf, Secretary of Commerce 
and Labor. (Letter to the President of March i, 1905.) The latter wrote: 
"As the law now stands, permission to use the reservation for purposes 
which will permanently change its natural conditions may be granted only 
by Congress." The reasons for this view, as set forth by Mr. Hitchcock, 
are that "The act of 1890 (establishing the park) makes it obligatory 
to preserve and retain the natural curiosities and wonders of the park 
in their natural condition." The act of 1901, under the authority of which 
this permit has been obtained, allows grants of revocable rights of way 
"which are not incompatible with the public interest." "It is inconceivable," 
says Mr. Hitchcock, "that it was intended by the act of 1901 to confer 
any authority to be exercised fcir the subversion of those natural con- 
ditions which are essential to the very purposes for which the park was 
established. This is the common sense construction of the two acts." — 
From Brief of Appalachian Mountain Club. 

"Secretary Hitchcock said that public interest meant the preservation of 
the natural curiosities and wonders in their natural condition. Secretary 
Garfield said it meant a water supply for San Francisco, as that was the 
highest beneficial use. A study of the records of Congress will show, 
however, that Secretary Hitclicock srasped the real meaning of the later 
act. The Committee on the Public Lands, in reporting the act of 1901, 
said : 

"The several acts relating to this subject should be brought to- 
gether and harmonized in a new act, the terms of which should 
be broad and comprehensive enough to afford the widest possible 
use for all beneficial purposes of the waters on the public lands and 
reservations of the United States, so long as the same is 
consistent with the precervation of the public interests and 
the attainment of the purposes for which the various reser- 
vations are established." 

"From the foregoing it would seem that it was the intention of the Com- 
mittee, and presumably the intention of the Congress, that the act should 
be availed of in a way that would not destroy the purposes of the park, 
which were the preservation of objects of beauty. And of those Hetch- 
Hetchy was notably one." — From Report of Hon. Herbert Parsons, Mem- 
ber of the Committee of Public Lands of the House, p. 27, Report No. 
2085 ; 6otli Congress, 2nd session. 

"It is not within my power under the guise of giving a revocable 
right of way to give away one of the wonders of the park." — Hon. 
E. A. Hitchcock, former Secretary of the Interior. 

Read carefully pp. 20-21 and help to saz'e the Park. 



According to the terms of the Garfield permit, San Francisco must 
first develop Lake Eleanor and Cherry River to their e^reatest capacity. 
It would be fifty years before Hetch-IIetchy Valley could possibly be 
used. Who can foretell what the travel to the Hetch-Hetchy will be 
by that time? It is now numbered by the hundreds annually and in fifty 
years will reach so far into the thousands as to be almost unbelievable. 
A hundred years a,2;o the travel into the Alps was negligible. Now it 
has become the "Playground of Europe" and consular reports indicate 
that over two million persons travel to the Swiss Alps annually. 

If San Francisco should secure the legislation she .seeks granting 
her the floor of Hetch-Hetchv, it would mean that the destruction of 
the valley would only be a matter of time. How much more rational 
to let this question of the necessity for using the valley be determined 
when that necessity actually arises. The valley will remain in the park 
and can not be ac(]uired by others. This situation demonstrates the 
sophistry of the water system advocates. They are afraid to let this 
question remain open to be decided by those who fifty years hence are 
rightfully entitled to decide it. If allowed to increase without restric- 
tion, travel to the Hetch-IIetchy fifty years from now will be so great 
as to make any scheme to destroy it unthinkable. The value of the 
Yosemite National Park as a commercial asset is simply incalculable. 
It is a gold mine for the State of California and a treasure house for 
the whole nation. The Hetch-Hetchy Valley is one of its most priceless 
attractions, and no community would suffer greater loss by the destruc- 
tion of Hetch-Hetchy than San Francisco herself. 

"The value of great scenic possessions is heinR increasingly recognizee! the 
world over. This value is now known to have a great inflncnce upon the fievelop- 
inent of that best citizenship, witlio'U ^vhicIl a country is poor indeed. It is also 
admittedly understood to relate very closely to the maintenance of the health of 
the people. There is, too, a recognized and most definite value in the mainten- 
ance of great scenery as a directly productive asset, attracting travel from all 
the world. It is admitted that more than twenty millions of dollars are annually 
expended in travel to see the Falls of Niagara. Capitalized at five per cent, and 
taking no account of the increasing travel, this would make the travel value 
alone of this one asset of American natural scenery exceed four hundred millions 
of dollars. The travel tribute paid to the Yosemite National Park is annually 
increasing, and as our population increase it must increase in larger proportion ; 
for more and more are men driven for necessary rest and recreation to the few 
remaining spots presenting imdamaged nature's sublimest works. It mav there- 
fore be assumed, I insist, that all of the Yosemite National Park, which in its 
wisdom Congress set aside many years ago for just the purpose I have been 
urging, holds a very large value, inhering to all the people of the Ignited States. 
This value, I insist, should not be interfered with except for a grave public 
necessity, and for cause fully shown to the satisfaction of the whole country, 
who own the Yosemite National Park." — J. Horace McFarland, President of 
.American Civic Association. 

"Conservation of oiir natural scenery is conservation of one of the 
nation's greatest resources. 

"This threatened precedent of entering National Parks is wrong in 
principle and unnecessary in fact. 

"There is a vast economic reason for jealously guarding all of our 
scenic heritage in America." — J. Horace McFarland, President of 
American Civic Association. 


Read carefully (<f. jo-ji and luil> to save the Park. 


Those who would enter and destroy vital and essential features of our great 
national parks give as a reason that the lletch-Hetchy Valley is flooded by the 
spring freshets of the Tuolumne River. The facts arc these: For a few days, in 
the spring portions of the lower end of the Hetch-Hetchy Valley are covered 
vvitii water. The upper two-thirds, cnihracing the most hcantiful parts of tlie 
park-like floor, is never flooded. After tiie water recedes from the lower portion, 
it leaves a dry sandy soil which becomes one of the most licautiful llower gardens 
in the Sierra. The Yoseniite Valley floor is subject to the same periodic and 
extensive flooding at seasons of high water. 

The floor of Hetch-Hetchy Valley has been called a "mosquito marsh" by our 
zealous opponents. There are mosquitoes there in great numbers immediately 
following the spring overflow of the lower end of the valley, but they remain but 
a short time and disappear entirely when the water is drained off from the sandy 
llower gardens and meadows, as nature quickly accomplishes. Drainage and a 
liberal use of petroleum will eradicate even this temporary nuisance. There are 
great numbers of mosquitoes even in the Yosemite Valley itself. Let us drow-n 
the Yosemite if this argument is tenable. 

They argue that Hetch-Hetchy Valley is accessible only a few months in the 
year. With good roads it can he made accessible the whole year round, as the 
Yosemite Valley has recently been made accessible. 

The park invaders urge that but few visit Hetch-Hetchy Valley now and that 
tile needs of a great city are paramount to the pleasures of a few. The same 
argument would have applied to Yosemite before good roads were made. We are 
nut judging the needs of the Hetch-Hetchy Valley by present travel there. With 
good roads and trails connecting it with the Yosemite and the other important 
places in the park, travel to Hetch-Hetchy will increase just as travel to the 
Yosemite has increased. 

They urge that the city now owns all the patented land on the floor of the 
valley and that this bill in Congress merely provides for the exchange of other 
lands so that the city can secure control of the entire floor in fee simple. San 
FVancisco has acquired by purchase some 720 acres in and about the floor of the 
Hetch-Hetchy Valley. In order to cover fully the rights she desires she will 
need about 2000 acres more that now belong to the American people and is a 
part of the national park. It is unfortunate that the nation ever parted with 
any of its title to these lands, but it is one of those mistakes made in the early 
days when our public domain was parcelled out without regard to consequences. 
This land was acquired under the guise of homesteads, etc., and in reality was 
used for a few years for pasturing sheep and stock. The government at that 
time never realized how priceless it was. The creation of the national park 
put an end to further sacrifice of one of the nation's most valuable possessions. 
Now these park invaders argue that because the government made the monu- 
mental mistake of ever parting with title to an acre of this wonderland, it shall 
now commit the irretrievable folly of sacrificing it all! The land the city owns 
is valueless for reservoir purposes without acquiring control over all the remainder. 
The government called a halt when it created the park, and a wise policy will 
decree that the land which it foolishly patented before the creation of the park 
shall be either purchased or condemned like other private claims in other 
national parks. 


The city proposes through the bill now pending in Congress to exchange for 
lands on or near the floor of Hetch-Hctchy an equal acreage of patented lands — 
some situated within the national park and some not even in the park, but in the 
adjacent forest reserve. The Hog Ranch is one of the tracts lying just outside 
the present park boundary. It is like thousands of other Sierra pastures, and to 
exchange Hetch-Hetchy Valley for Hog Ranch would be like exchanging Central 
Park in New York City for an equal acreage of cow pasture. 

Another private holding owned by the city is in Till Till Valley. The 
absurdity of this proposed exchange is demonstrated by the following fact. 
The special committee of the Commonwealth Club of San Francisco having this 
very matter under consideration reports that it "is extremely doubtful, con- 
sidering the difficulties of sanitation" whether Till Till "may be used for the 
accommodation of visitors" if Hetch-Hetchy becomes a municipal reservoir. 
Would the nation profit by such an exchange? The very land the nation would 
acquire could not be used by the public because the land the nation would sur- 
render to the city in exchange would be used as a municipal reservoir, which 
would be polluted by drainage from Till Till! Till Till would also be rendered 
practically inaccessible by the flooding of the Hetch-Hetchy camp grounds. 


By John Muir, 

Author of "The Mountains of California," "Our National Parks," etc. 

The fame of the Merced Yosemite has spread far and wide, while 
Hetch-Hetchy, the Tuolumne Yosemite, has until recently remained 
comparatively unknown, notwithstanding it is a wonderfully exact 
counterpart of the famous valley. As the Merced flows in tranquil 
beauty through Yosemite, so does the Tuolumne through Hetch- 
Hetchy. The floor of Yosemite is about 4,000 feet above the sea, 
and that of Hetch-Hetchy about 3,700, while in both the walls are of 
gray granite, very high, and rise precipitously out of flowery gardens 
and groves. Furthermore, the two wonderful valleys occupy the same 
relative positions on the flank of the Sierra, were formed by the same 
forces in the same kind of granite, and have similar waterfalls, sculp- 
ture, and vegetation. Hetch-Hetchy lies in a northwesterly direction 
from Yosemite at a distance of about eighteen miles, and is now easily 
accessible by a trail and wagon-road from the Big Oak Flat road at 

The most strikingly picturesque rock in the valley is a majestic 
pyramid over 2,000 feet in height whicli is called by the Indians 
"Kolana." It is the outermost of a group like the Cathedral Rocks 
of Yosemite and occupies the same relative position on the south wall. 
Facing Kolana on the north side of the valley there is a massive sheer 
rock like the Yosemite EI Capitan about 1,900 feet high, and over its 
brow flows a stream that makes the most beautiful fall I have ever 
seen. The Indian name for it is "Tueeulala." From the edge of the 
cliff it is perfectly free in the air for a thousand feet, then breaks up 
into a ragged sheet of cascades among the boulders of an earthquake 
talus. It is in all its glory in June, when the snow is melting fast, but 
fades and vanishes toward the end of summer. The only fall I know 
with which it may fairly be compared is the Yosemite Bridal Veil ; 
but it excels even that favorite fall both in height and fineness of fairy 
airy beauty and behavior. Lowlanders are apt to suppose that moun- 
tain streams in their wild career over cliffs lose control of themselves 
and tumble in a noisy chaos of mist and spray. On the contrary, on no 
part of their travels are they more harmonious and self-controlled. 
Imagine yourself in Hetch-Hetchy on a sunny day in June, standing 
waist-deep in grass and flowers (as I have oftentimes stood), whil" 
the great pines sway dreamily with scarce perceptible motion. Look- 
ing northward across the valley you see a plain gray granite cliflF rising 
abruptly out of the gardens and groves to a height of 1,800 feet, and 
in front of it Tueeulala's silvery scarf burning with irised sun-fire in 
every fiber. Approaching the brink of the rock, her waters flow 
swiftly, and in the first white outburst of the stream at the head of the 
fall there is abundance of visible energy, but it is speedily hushed and 
concealed in divine repose ; and its tranquil progress to the base of the 
cliff is like that of downy feathers in a still room. Now observe the 
fineness and marvelous distinctness of the various sun-illumined fabrics 
into which the water is woven : they sift and float from form to form 
down the face of that grand gray rock in so leisurely and unconfused 
a manner that you can examine their texture, and f)atterns, and tones 


Read carefully pp. 20-21 and help to save the Park. 

The Endangered Galley — John Miiir. 

of color as you would a piece of embroidery held in the hand. Near 
the head of the fall you see groups of booming comet-like masses, 
their solid white heads separate, their tails like combed silk interlacing 
among delicate shadows, ever forming and dissolving, worn out by 
friction in their rush through the air. Most of these vanish a few 
hundred feet below the summit, changing to the varied forms of 
cloudlike drapery. Near the bottom the width of the fall has increased 
from about twenty-five to a hundred feet, and is composed of yet finer 
tissue, fold over fold — air, water, and sunbeams woven into irised robes 
that spirits might wear. 

So fine a fall might well seem sufficient to glorify any valley; but 
here as in Yosemibe Nature seems in no wise moderate, for a short 
distance to the eastward of Tuceulala booms and thunders the great 
Hetch-Hetchy fall, Wapama, so near that you have both of them in full 
view from the same standpoint. It is the counterpart of the Yosemite 
Fall, but has a much greater volume of water, is about 1,700 feet in' 
height, and appears to be nearly vertical though considerably inclined, 
and is dashed into huge outbounding bosses of foam on the projecting 
shelves and knobs of its jagged gorge. No two falls could be more 
unlike — Tuceulala out in the open sunshine descending like thistle- 
down, chanting soft and low like a summer breeze in the pines; Wa- 
pama in a jagged shadowy gorge roaring and thundering, pounding 
its way with the weight and energy of an avalanche. Tuceulala 
whispers that the Almighty dwells in peace; Wapama is the thunder 
of His chariot-wheels in power. Besides this glorious pair there 
is a broad massive fall on the main river a short distance above the 
head of the valley. Its position is something like that of the Vernal 
in Yosemite, and its roar as it plunges into a surging trout-pool may 
be heard a long way, though it is only about twenty feet high. There 
is also a chain of magnificent cascades at the head of the valley on a 
stream that comes in from the northeast, mostly silvery plumes, like 
the one between the yernal and Nevada falls of Yosemite, half-sliding, 
half-leaping on bare glacier-polished granite, covered with crisp clash- 
ing spray into which the sunbeams pour with glorious effect. Others 
shoot edgewise, through deep, narrow gorges, chafing and surging 
beneath rainbows in endless variety of form and tone. And besides 
all these here and there small streams, seldom noticed, come dancing 
down from crag to crag with birdlike song and watering many a hidden 
cliff-garden and fernery, doing what they can in the grand general 

The floor of the valley is about three and a half miles long, half 
a mile wide, and is partly separated by a bar of glacier-polished gran- 
ite across which the river breaks in rapids. The lower part is mostly 
a grassy, flowery meadow, with the trees confined to the sides and the 
river-banks. The upper forested part is charmingly diversified with 
groves of the large and picturesque California live-oak, and the noble 
yellow pine, which here attains a height of more than two hundred feet, 
growing well apart in small groves or singly, allowing each tree to 
be seen in all its beauty and grandeur. Beneath them the common 
pteris spreads a sumptuous carpet, tufted here and there with ceanothus 
and manzanita bushes, azalea and brier-rose, and brightened with 
Mariposa tulips, goldenrod, tall mints, larkspurs, geraniums, etc., amid 

Read carefully pp. ^0-21 and help to save the Park. 


The Endans^crcd Falley — John Muir. 

which butterflies, bees, and huniming-birds find rich pasturage. Near 
the walls, especially on the earthquake tali that occur in many places, 
the pines and California oak give place to the mountain live-oak, which 
forms the shadiest and most extensive groves. The glossy foliage, 
densely crowded, makes a beautiful ceiling, with only a few irregular 
openings for the admission of sunbeams, while the pale-gray trunks 
and the branches, gnarled and outspread in wide interlacing arches, 
are most impressively beautiful and picturesque. The sugar-pine, 
Sabine pine, incense cedar, silver fir, and tumion, occur here and there 
among the oaks and yellow pines, or in cool side canons, or scattered 
on the rifted wall rocks and benches. The river-bank trees are chiefly 
libocedrus, poplar, willow, alder, and flowering dogwood. 

Hetch-Hetchy Valley is a grand landscape garden, one of Nature's 
rarest and most precious mountain mansions. As in Yosemite, the 
sublime rocks of its walls seem to the nature-lover to glow with life, 
whether leaning back in repose or standing erect in thoughtful atti- 
tudes giving welcome to storms and calms alike. And how softly 
these mountain rocks are adorned, and hov/ fine and reassuring the 
company they keep — their brows in the sky, their feet set in groves 
and gay emerald meadows, a thousand flowers leaning confidingly 
against their adamantine bosses, while birds, bees, and butterflies help 
the river and waterfalls to stir all the air into music — things frail and 
fleeting and types of permanence meeting here and blending, as if into 
this glorious mountain temple Nature had gathered her choicest treas- 
ures, whether great or small, to draw her lovers into close confiding 
communion with her. 

Hetch-Hetchy weather is delightful and invigorating all the year. 
Snow seldom lies long on the floor, and is never very deep. On the 
sunny north wall many a sheltered nook may be found embraced by 
sun-warmed rock-bosses in which flowers bloom every month of the 
year. Even on the shaded south side of the valley the frost is never 

The most delightful and wonderful campgrounds in the park are 
the three great valleys — Yosemite, Hetch-Hetchy, and Upper Tuol- 
umne; and they arc also the most important places with reference to 
their positions relative to the other great feaures — the Merced and 
Tuolumne canons, and the High Sierra peaks and glaciers, etc., at the 
head of the rivers. The main part of the Tuolumne Valley is a beau- 
tiful spacious flowery lawn four or five miles long, surrounded by 
magnificent snowy mountains. It is about 8,500 feet above the sea, 
and fomis the grand central High Sierra campground from which 
excursions are made to the noble mountains, domes, glaciers, etc. ; 
across the range to the Mono Lake and volcanoes; and down the 
Tuolumne Canon to Hetch-Hetchy. But should Hetch-Hetchy be 
submerged, as proposed, not only would it be made utterly inaccessible, 
but the sublime canon way to the heart of the High Sierra would be 
hopelessly blocked. 

That any one would try to destroy such a place seemed impossible, 
but sad experience shows that there are people good enough and bad 
enough for anything. The proponents of the dam scheme bring for- 
ward a lot of bad argimicnts to prove that the only righteous thing 
for Hetch-Hetchy is its destruction. These arguments are curiously 

16 Read carefully pp. 20-21 and help to save the Park. 

The Endangered Valley — John Muir. 

like tliose of the devil devised for the destruction of the first garden — 
so much of the very best Eden fruit going to waste, so much of the 
best Tuolumne water. In these ravaging money-mad days monopo- 
lizing San Francisco capitalists are now doing their best to destroy 
the Yosemite Park, the most wonderful of all our great mountain 
national parks. Beginning on the Tuolumne side, they are trying with 
a lot of sinful ingenuity to get the Government's permission to dam 
^and destroy the Hetch-Hetchy Valley for a reservoir, simply that com- 
^paratively private gain may be made out of universal public loss. This 
use of the valley, so destructive and foreign to its proper park use, 
has long been planned and prayed for, and is still being prayed for 
by the San Francisco board of supervisors, not because water as pure 
and abundant cannot be got from adjacent sources outside the park, — 
for it can, — but seemingly only because of the comparative cheapness 
of the dam required. 

Garden- and park-making goes on everywhere with civilization, for 
everj'body needs beauty as well as bread, places to ])lay in and pray in, 
where Nature may heal and cheer and give strength to body and soul. 

It is impossible to overestimate the value of wild mountains and 
mountain temples. They are the greatest of our natural resources, 
God s best gifts, but none, however high and holy, is beyond reach 
of the spoiler. 

These temple destroyers, devotees of ravaging commercialism, seem 
to have a perfect contempt for Nature, and instead of lifting their eyes 
to the mountains, lift them to dams and town skyscrapers. 

Dam Hetch-Hetchy! As well dam for water-tanks the people's 
cathedrals and churches, for no holier temple has ever been consecrated 
by the heart of man. 

Excepting only Yosemite, Hetch-Hetchy is the most attractive and 
wonderful valley within the bounds of the great Yosemite National 
Park and the best of all the campgrounds. People are now flocking 
to it in ever-increasing numbers for health and recreation of body and 
mind. Though the walls are less sublime in height than those of 
Yosemite, its groves, gardens, and broad spacious meadows are more 
beautiful and picturesque. It is many years since sheep and cattle were 
pastured in it, and the vegetation now shows scarce a trace of their 
ravages. Last year in October I visited the valley with Mr. William 
Keith, the artist. He wandered about from view to view, enchanted, 
made thirty-eight sketches, and enthusiastically declared that in varied 
picturesque beauty Hetch-Hetchy greatly surpassed Yosemite. It is 
one of God s best gifts, and ought to be faithfully guarded. 

[Note. — The substance of the foregoing article has appeared in the Century 
Magazine, Sierra Club Bulletin, and the Outlook, and it was written many years 
before this Hetch-Hetchy question arose.] 

.... If a municipal water-works is permitted to erect its plant 
in the Hetch-Hetchy Valley, it means that the Yosemite Park will be- 
come the back-yard of a great municipal utility instead of a recrea- 
tion gfroimd. for all the people of the country. — Editorial in X. Y. 
"Outlook." Januarv 30. 1909. 

Read carefully pp. 20-21 und help to save tlu Park. 




Taft, while visiting the Yosem.te VaUey ^f^^V '^^^ 5,^^ Prancsco s 

Mui;, who thus had abundant opportumty to ta k o h. ^^^^^^ 
proposed conversion of the ^^^^^ t^^^^^^ valley from the nation 

next Congress will ^^^tV which, emLnt engineers have show,, 

and make a present of it '° "'^'.^^ "^"^ilable sources of good water The 

SHALL THE YOSEMITE BE ''E^^™^^^^^ perpetuity of 

-•Aside from the fact that the precedent --'-^ endangers^the .P^ 
n^t^nal parks generally this is real y^^^^^^^^ >-t f ^^e^half of the 

public to domestic use of ^^at c t.t ues ce y ^ ^^^^ '"f^^^^this 
Yosemite National Park. It . "'"^ ^ „ ultimate issues involved in this 
S austive Congressional invest^ation o^^^ ^^^,pt t,,,^ of 

grant. National parks ^^"1^ .^^^^^/Vn N /"d./'^^d/nt, Jauuary .4, 
Absolute public necessity. -Ld.tonal m in. 

TO MAINTAIN THE WONDERS ^^/^^'^T^ Hot to pass any 
... A temporary agreement has been re ch d C^^^^^^^^ 
legislation permanently l^^nting a part o^ J^/^- ,,ppiy for a year. This 

Hetchy Valley-to San FranciscoJ^ a source ^^^^^^^^ ^,^1,^ 
practically nulhhes Secretary Garheia^ oe ^^^^^^^^ \?09..„,,^ite " 

-rSefalso iaclStled '•San'Sncsco Against the Nation fo. the Yosemite. 
by French Strother in the same issuej ,vith extinction, 

hetch-hetchy, a valley of ^^of ^«^/^°;^,;"Hde in our magnificent system 
4fery jover of mUure every^^ desecration. - 

'^SH^^s^^^^^^^ --^ t£r sr-^ 

Monitor, January 30, iW- ^ ^^^^ ^^^^ ^ k ,n ,008 1 

[Editorial from THe 0-.-";«".,^ D-^^^^^ ^ , 

The ihole country - /"^l^^'e^r tory beSngin .0 the American peopk^ 
porlant part of the '"Of Y^' ^^^J ^^Vk and next to the Yosem.te Valley the 
'ft lies in the Y osemi e Nation. ^^^^^ .^^ ^^^^ 

in he Y^;:emi^ National Park jmd n^t o^nc ^^^ ^^ 

^nnolv all she needed forever. There are le ^^,3 eagerness to 




[Edit orial in the Century Magazine,, 1908.] 
Of this great park reservation, which is as large as the State of Rhode Island, 
the northern third — for the watershed of the valley even above the Tuolumne 
Meadows must go with the valley itself — is to be withdrawn from the use of the 
people of the whole United States and given to the city of San Francisco. This 
involves a new principle and a dangerous prcix'dent, and is a tremendous price 
for the nation to pay for San Francisco's water, and the burden of proof that it 
is necessary is upon those who advocated the grant. It is not enough that it 
should be thought merely desirable. 

[Editorial in the Boston Transcript, November 28, 1908.] 
The case is of interest to the country because it so vitally affects one of the 
principal national parks and because of its connection with the conservation of 
natural resources agitation. It is very generally supposed that national parks 
were established for the purpose of preserving in a natural state some of the 
chief scenic features of our country, and that once a park had been established 
it is for all time safe from any attack. Few ever suspected that it lay in the 
power of any cabinet officer to make a present of a slice of one of these national 
properties to some favored city. Such is the case, however, and if these parks 
are to be in fact held sacred in the future the laws governing them must be 
amended. If the people believe that these lands should be set aside for the 
preservation of their scenic charms and to furnish recreation grounds for the 
public amid these uplifting surroundings, then it is time for the individual 
citizen to bestir himself and as an individual and through organizations apprise 
the members of Congress of this belief. 

[Editorial in Out West ^dagazine.'\ 

If there is anything in the world which should enlist the untiring effort of 
every true Californian, it is the preservation of our Yosemites. . . . 

The very thing that makes the Yosemites glorious to every traveler that sees 
them, naturally appeals to the corporation hunting for a reservoir. It is perhaps 
not curious that God Almighty knows as much as our civil engineers know. A 
reservoir which should fill the Yosemite would be adequate to give all the baths, 
and all the fresh water drinks taken and to be taken by all the grafters and all 
the decent persons in San Francisco. But nobody will ever dam the well-known 
Yosemite. If we permit anybody to dam the Hetch-Hetchy, may we be able to 
die before our children and grand-children rise up to tell us to our face what 
vandals and scrubs we were. ' 

The whole thing is absolutely wanton. Out of this tremendous and alpine 
watershed there is no trouble as to the supplying of all the Golden State without 
a single vandalism or destroying something which belongs to the whole world. 
The more we of California can realize that our big trees, our Yosemites, our 
climate, belong to the world as long as there shall be one, the better we shall 
do for ourselves and for our children. 

A city must have water. There is no question about that. . . . There is always 
a way to get water. We have had a similar example in the case of Niagara 
Falls. It is a question whether Buffalo, New York, can peddle the falls out to 
manufacturers and kill them off for the whole world. The overwhelming 
sentiment, not only of the foreign world but of America, has been that the falls 
must be preserved. The overwhelming sentiment of California and of the 
world will be that our Yosemites must be preserved. It is simply a question 
of harnessing this public opinion in time. 

The matter is at an acute stage. The dollar-minded people are working for 
this robbery of a State of its glory and its worth to tlie wcirld, in order to pnt 
water into San Francisco. Anybody American enough ought to object to thia 
sort of infamy. — Chas. F. Lummis. 


". . . . engineers declare that there are a number of Sierra streams, riiiv one of 
which could satisfy the city's needs. 1 . . Many people who appreciate the great 
natural wonders of this country have petitioned their Representatives at Washing- 
ton to vote against the measure. . . ." — Harper's Weekly, September 4, 1909. 

Read carefully pp. 20-21 and help to save the Park: 


1. Write at once to Hon. Richard A. Ballinger, Secretary of tlie 
Interior, Washington, D. C, requesting him to revoke the Garfield 
pennit to flood the Hetch-Hetciiy Valley. 

2. Send a copy of the letter to President William H. Taft. 

3. See personally if possible, or write to, the Senators and Congress- 
men from your State, and. as many others as you can reach, requesting 
them to vigorously oppose any bill having for its object the confirmation 
of the Garfield permit to flood Hetch-Hetchy Valley, and request them 
to favor legislation designed to protect our parks from invasion, and 
particularly to favor improving the Yosemite Park. After December 
I, 1909, address them either "Senate Chamber" or "House of Repre- 
sentatives," Washington, D. C. 

4. After December ist write to each member of the Public Lands 
Committees of both the Senate and the House, Washington, D. C, 
requesting them to oppose any and all legislation having for its object 
the (.lestruction of the Hetch-Hetchy Valley and to favor any legisla- 
tion designed to protect the parks. Write to all if you can, but if you 
cannot, at least write to the Chairman of each committee. (The names 
of the members of the committees will be found on the opposite page.) 

5. Get as many of your friends as possible to write. Remember! 
every letter and every protest counts. 

6. Interest your newspapers and get them to publish editorials and 
news items and send copies to your Senators and Representatives. 

7. Send the names and addresses of any persons who would be inter- 
ested in receiving this pamphlet to "Society for the Preservation of 
National Parks, 302 Mills Building, San Francisco, Cal." 

EDITORS are respectfully requested to write brief editorials and 
news items informing the public and calling on them to write to 
their Congressmen and Senators and protest. 

CLUBS should send copies of resolutions they may adopt to Pres- 
ident Taft, Secretary Ijallinger, and each member of the Public 
Lands Committees, and the Senators and Representatives from their 

FUNDS ARE NEEDED to carry on this fight. A few have gen- 
erously carried the burden of expense connected with the issuance of 
this literature, but more money is required to spread information. 
Those who would like to render pecuniary assistance may send their 
contributions to John Muir, President of Society for the Preservation 
of National Parks, 302 Mills Building, San Francisco, Cal. 


I'utnam's Magazine, May, 1909. "Camping Above the Yosemite," by Harriet Monroe, pp. 221-6. 
The World To-Day, May, 1909. "The Hetch-Hetchy," by F. M. FuUz, pp. 524-530- 
World's Work, April, 1909. Editorial and article entitled, "San Francisco .Against the Nation. ' 
Suburban Life, March, 1909. Article entitled "Despoiling the Hetch-Hetchy," by Wm. F. 
Bade, pp. 1 171 18. 

Outlook (N. Y.) January 30. 1909. Editorial, pp. 234-236; Article entitled "Dismembering 

Your National Park." liy R. U. Johnson, pp. 252-3. 
Outlook (N. Y. ) February 13. 1909. Editorial, pp. 330-331. 

The Independent (N. Y.) May 14, 1908. "The Hetch-Hetchy Valley," pp. 1079-1084. 


Read carefully pp. zo-zi and kelp to save the Park. 


Members of Public Lands Commit- 
tee, House of Representatives. 

Hon. .John PI. Bankhead 

" Geo. E. Chamberlain 

" Clarence D. Clark 

" Jefferson Davis 

" Joseph M. Dixon 

" Frank P. Flint 

" Robert J. Gamble 

" Weldon P.. Ileyburn 

" Martin N. Johnson* 

" Wesley J. Jones 

" Samuel D. McICnery 

" Knute Nelson (Ch.) 

" FrancisG.Newlands 

'* Robert L. Owen 

" Reed Smoot 

' Deceased 

Fayette, Ala. 
Portland, Or. 
ICvanston, Wyo. 
Little Rock. Ark. 
Missoula, Mont. 
Los Angeles, Cal. 
Yankton, So. Dak. 
Wallace, Idaho 
Petersburg, N.Dak. 
No. Yakima, Wash. 
New Orleans, La. 
Alexandria, Minn. 
Reno, Nev. 
Muskogee, Okla. 
Provo ITtah 


Wm. H. Andrews 
Adam M. Byrd 
Wm. B. Craig 
Chas. A. Crow 
Scott Ferris 
Asle J. Gronna 
Thos. R. Hamer 
Dudley M. Hughes 
Fben W. Martin 
F.W. MondelKCh.) 
Dick T. Morgan 
Herbert Parsons 
Chas. E. Pickett 
Chas. N. Pray 
Geo. W. Ranch 
John M. Reynolds 
Joseph T. Robinson 
Sylvester C. Smith 
Edward T. Taylor 
Andrew J.Volstead 

Santa Fe. N. M. 
Philadelphia, Miss. 
Selma, Ala. 
Caruthersville, Mo. 
Lawton, Okla. 
Lakota. No. Dak. 
St. Anthony, Idaho 
Danville, Ga. 
Deadwood, So. Dak. 
Newcastle. Wyo. 
Woodward, Okla. 
New York 
Waterloo, la. 
Kt. Benton. Mont. 
Marion. Ind. 
Bedford, Penn. 
Lonoke, Ark. 
Bakersficld, Cal. 
Glenwood Spgs .Col. 
Granite Falls, Minn. 

It is particul.Trly urgent that yon impress the members of the Public Lands 
Committees from your State witli tlic importance of opposing any bill granting 
the Hetch-Hetchy Valley to San Francisco. See them personally if possible, 
write to tliem and send resolutions to them. After December ist address them, 
"Senate Chamber" or "House of Representatives," Washington, D. C. 


House of Representatives or Senate Chamber, (as the case may be) 
Washington, D. C. 

Sir: — Our national parks are already too few in niunber. We are vitally 
interested in preserving intact those now existin.g. Wc earnestly protest against 
the destruction of any of the wonderful scenery of the Yosemite National Park 
and urge you to oppose any bill which will permit San Francisco to use Hetch- 
Hetchy as a municipal water tank. Strengthen our park laws instead of allowing 
them to he overriden. Very truly. 

(Write letters similar to the foregoing in your own language and in accord- 
ance with your own ideas.) 

Whereas : The Hetch-Hetchy Valley is one of the grandest and most important 
features of the great Yosemite National Park belonging to the ninety millions 
of people composing the American public ; 

Whereas : This valley is threatened with destruction by those seeking a water 
supply for San Francisco and the use of the park by the public would thereby be 
seriously restricted ; 

Whereas: The precedent thus established would destroy the integrity of our 
whole national park system ; 

Whereas: The need for great public playgrounds is becoming vastly greater 
instead of diminishing; 

Whereas : Eminent engineers report that this proposed invasion of a national 
wonderland is wholly unnecessary and that San Francisco can get an abundance 
of pure water elsewhere ; 

Now Therefore be it Resolved: That we are earnestly opposed to such a 
needless local use of a priceless national possession in which the entire citizenship 
is interested, and we petition the President and the Secretary of the Interior to 
revoke the r'evocable permit now existing and urge all Senators and Repre- 
sentatives, especially those composing the Public Lands Committees, to defeat 
any bill which proposes to confirm any such invasion ; and that a copy of this 
resolution be sent to the President, the Secretary of the Interior, our repre- 
sentatives in Congress and to the members of the Public Lands Committees. 

(Clubs should adopt resolutions similar to the foregoing.) 

"The national parks — all too few in number and extent — ought to be held 
absolutely inviolate, as intended bv Congress. Intrusions for questionable water- 
supply needs, against the unselfish protests of those whose love of country 
cannot be impugned, should not be permitted." — /. Horace McFarland. 

Read carefully pp. 20-21 and help to save the Park. 



"I am of the opinion that the city has failed to establish its contention 
that the Hetch-Hetchy is the only reasonably available source of water 
supply in the Sierras, and that, therefore, the interests of the people of 
all the country should be waived on behalf of San Francisco in its 
claim to exclusive use of this valley." — F. IV. Mondcll, Scott Ferris, 
W. B. Craig, Jno. M. Reynolds, D. IV. Hamilton. 

"We are opposed to this resolution in its present form, as it does not 
sufficiently guard public interests. We believe that its passage will 
eventually exclude the public from the Hetch-Hetchy Valley and the 
Tuolumne Canon, and we are not willing that that .should be done, as 
it does not appear that it is necessary for the city of San Francisco 
to obtain this property for a water supply. 

"It appears from the testimony given by the committee appointed 
by the city to urge this resolution before this committee that there arc 
other available supplies in the Sierras." — A. J. Volstead, A. J. Gronna. 

"The undersigned admits that if this .source is essential to San Fran- 
cisco the grant should be made. But San Francisco has not made out 
a case .showing that it is es.sential. The testimony indicates that there 
are a number of other sources. ... 

"San Francisco is in an enviable situation for water supply. It has 
all the Sierras, with their mountain snows and lakes to draw upon. 
There are no less than sixteen different systems. . . . 

"The fact of the matter is that San Francisco, having its eye on the 
Hetch-Hetchy, has not thoroughly investigated other systems. . . . 

"Certainly the Federal Government is not bound to give up to San 
Franci-sco two fifths of a national park simply because it is cheaper. 
Why is it cheaper? It is cheaper because, having been made a national 
park, it has not been possible for private interests to file upon the water 
in the same manner that they could have if there had not been a national 
park. Had private interests been allowed to file upon the water, San 
Francisco woidd not have thought of going to Hetch-Hetchy any more 
than to any other place. It would have chosen the place that it most 
cheaply could have condemned. It goes to Hetch-Hetchy mainly be- 
cause it is cheapest. Hetch-Hetchy is cheapest because it belongs to all 
the people instea 1 of to some of the people. It has been preserved and 
made cheap bcrau-e the purpose was to use it as a national park. Hav- 

Cinrinnntl, O. TRI IXiRAlM. Noy. 18, 1000. 

Rmolndon panned by the Amerloiin Civic Aniiooiatlon, Tbnrnday, Kov. 18, 
1000, reooKnIzini; the niMiIom of the CnnKTVHH In Mettinic nnlile for piiblir imr the 
Kreiit niitionnl pnrk.<< nnil bellcvlnii (lint awj iivildablo Interference ^vitli (he 
M<*enle lntef£rl(y ut (bene p:irkN Im In (he hli;^lieNt ile^ree unileNtriilile, (he Anieri- 

t^lvie AnNOi*in(lon in con^endon iiMMeinbletl iirK;eN^(he Seere(nry of (he In- 
(erlor (<i revoke (he perniK anil (he ConKrexK (o refuse (€> eonflrm nueh permK 
iiniler ivhieli (he el(.v of Snn l''r:in<-lHc<i Im nNNunilni; (» (•••n(rol eventually for n 
ilonieM(l<' \vfi(er Kiipply more (li:iii five hiinilred N(|ii:ire iiilleM 4if (he beM( of (be 
YoneniKe' jVntlonnI I'nrk, unleMH nfler n full anil Ir.ipnrdal Inquiry i( Mhnll be 
Nhown (o (he KadMfaedon of the ConKreim (ha( no odier MiiHIeient nonree of 
«a(er Hupply Im nvullnble (o Ssin FraneLieo. We furlher reMper(fnlly repreMen( 
(li«( (he KrnndnK and eonflrmadon of Mueli a periiiK (o Invade (he piiblle do- 
main i^oiild erea(e a nioMt dnnjcerouM preeeilen( iiniler ivlileh odier M€*enle pos- 
MeMMlonM of the I'nKed S(n(eR would be unttafe from Individual or corporate 


Read carefully pp. 20-21 and help to the Park, 

ing been made cheap in that manner, San Francisco now desires to ns^ 

it for itself by spoiling the very purpose which has made it cheap 

"I believe that we owe it to all the people to preserve Hetch-Hetchy 
uninterfered with for the use and enjoyment of all the people and tc 
carry out the policy intended when it was included within the- boun^- 
daries of the Yosemite National Park." — Herbert Parsons. 


3. The Hetch-Hetchy VaUey Is a wonderfully exact counterpart of the 
great Yosemite. 

4. The Grand Canon of tlie Tuolumne is one of the finest canons in America 
with its wonderful cascades and waterfalls and tremendous cliffs and walls. 

2. "The upper Tuolumne Valley is the widest, smoothest, most serenely 
spacious, and in every way the most delightful pleasure park in all the High 
Sierra." — John Muir. 

The shaded portion represents substantially the area of the Tuolumne 
drainage which would be affected by the Hetch-Hetchy grant. 

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AND KNOBS OF ITS JAGGED GORGE."— /ofcn Muir. Photo by Herbert W. Gleason. 

SOUTH WALL."— John Muir. Photo by Herbert W. Gleason. 


Photo by J. N. Le Conte. 


The Bay Cities Water Company's 




ON MARCH 13, 1907 
EDWIN DURYEA, Jr.. M. Am. Soc. C E. 





ON APRIL 9 AND MAY 21, 1906 


The Bay Cities Water Company's 




ONMARCHI3. 1907 
EDWIN DURYEA, Jr., M. Am. Soc. C. E. 





ON APRIL 9 AND MAY 2\. 1906 



An Address I5efore tlic COM AION WEALTH CLUB on March 
13, 1907, l)y Edwin Duryea, Jr.. M. Am. Soc. C. E-, 
Cliicf iMiirincer of the Comiiany. 



Till-; F.\cTS Anoi'T Tin-; W.w Citiks \\'ati:r Comtana's Pko.ikct, 
by Edwin Dnryca, Jr.. M. .\ni. Soc. C. E., 
Chief Ens^'ineer of the Company. 

i\ larch 13. 1907. 

I have been invited by the Clnb to present the facts abont the liay 
Cities Water Company's project of a water-snpply for San Francisco 
and shall therefore .say but little on other phases of the subject. The 
need of San Francisco for a larger and better water-supply than it now 
has, and for municipal ownership of its supply, seems so self-evident 
as to be hardly worth discussion. It seems equally evident that the 
new supply should be from the Sierras — and the only debatable question 
is which one of the several Sierra supplies will best meet the needs of 
San Francisco. 

Of the various Sierra supplies, but two are prominently mentioned 
at present as water-supplies for San Francisco. These two are the 
Tuolumne supply, advocated by Mr. James D. Phelan. former Mayor 
of San Francisco, and the American-Cosunnics sun])ly, owned by the 
Ijay Cities W^ater Company. 

P>ut brief comments will be made on the Tuolumne supply, ( i ) to 
show the improbability of San Francisco being able to acquire it and 
(2) to correct two of the misstatements made by Mr. Phelan in regard 
to it, both in his present discus.sion and previously in newspapers. As 
to its acquirement, it .should not be forgotten that no matter what the 
merit of the Tuolumne as a source of water-supply for San Francisco 
(and I believe it to have much merit), the United States Government 
has several times refused San Francisco ]iermission to use it for that 


purpose. Such a permission would be not only contrary to the estab- 
lished policy of the Government, but in direct disregard of the protests 
of agriculturists in the valley below, dependent on irrigation. The 
Government doubtless realizes that its adverse decision entails no more 
serious consequence to San Francisco than the necessity of adopting 
some other of the several Sierra supplies, as good as the Tuolumne but 
])erhaps a little more costly. Should any reservoir privileges be granted, 
the Modesto-Turlock Irrigation District, served by water from the 
Tuolumne, would be the interest most likely to receive them. Large 
sums have been spent in perfecting this irrigation system, which cannot, 
as can San Francisco, use other streams than the Tuolumne. The 
District has already, 1 believe, applied to the National (lovernment for 
reservoir privileges on the Tuolumne. 

To all exce])t ardent ])artisans of the Tuolumne supply, its acquire- 
ment b\' San Francisco seems imjjracticable and still as far distant as 
when the efl'ort to ac(|uire it was begun, about six years ago. 

The misstatements of Mr. F'helan which will be corrected are as 
follows : 

First, he states that the area contributing to the Tuolumne sup]>ly 
contains "more than 1500 s(|uare miles," though the fact is that the 
combined catchment-area of the Lake Eleanor and Hetch Hetchy reser- 
voirs contains but 53() scjuarc nnlos. ( See Report of C. E. Grunsky, 
City Engineer, Municipal Rei)orts, San Francisco, 1902-03, pp. 414 and 
416). The misstatement probably arose from confusing the area above 
the Government Gaging Station at La Cirange, 1501 s(|uarc miles, with 
the area above the point where the San Francisco supply would leave 
the river, many miles further up-stream. The correction of this mis- 
statement shows the true water-producing area of the "Tuolumne 
Supply" to be only 36 per cent, of that claimed by Mr. Phelan. 

The other misstatement relates to the run-off or .stream-flow of the 
Tuolumne. Mr. Phelan states that the Tuolumne catchment-area has 
a "mean annual rainfall of from 20-50 inches" and a "mean annual 
run-off of 24 inches." Mr. Grunsky .states ( .see his Report, p\). 420 and 
423, S. F. Munic. Rep., 1902-03) that both the Lake Eleanor and the 
Hetch Hetchy catchment-areas have average mean annual rainfalls of 
about 36 inches, with a mean annual run-off of about 14 inches. He 
also says "the minimum (rainfall) may be as low as 18 inches per 
annum" and "for a season of minimum precipitation, when the fnll of 
rain and snow throughout the watershed may be equivalent to only 18 
inches of rain, it is estimated that the run-off would be about 5.4 
inches." The date of Mr. Grunsky 's report was July, 1902. Later 
studies by him, embodied in an official drawing dated February, 1904, 
show that his final conclusion is that with Sierra conditions an 18-inch 
rainfall cannot be safely depended upon to yield more than 3.4 inches 
of run-off. 1 may add that I have di.scussed this drawing (entitled 
Revised Run-off Curves ) with him verbally and was told that it em- 
bodied his latest and most reliable data of run-oft", and should be used 
in preference to any of his earlier conclusions. 

Instead, therefore, of an average annual run-off of 24 inches from 
the Tuolumne area, as claimed by Mr. Phelan, Mr. Grunsky claims 
onlv 14 inches, or only 58 per cent, as much. The average run-off has 



but little bearing on water-supply, however, as for that purpose only 
the worst conditions, or the minimum run-of¥, can be considered. 
According to Mr. Grunsky's conclusions the value of the Tuolumne for 
water-su])ply is represented by 5.4 inches run-off fin his report of 
1902), or more accurately by 3.4 inches (in his Revised Run-off Curve 
of 1904). These values arc respectively 23 per cent, and 14 ])cr cent, 
of the 24 inches average run-off mentioned by Mr. Phclan. 

If the above error in run-off is combined with the error in area, the 
product of the 14 per cent, by the 36 per cent, gives about 5 per cent, 
as the relation between the actual water-producing value of the 
Tuolumne and that corresj^onding to the area and the average run-off 
mentioned by Air. Phclan. It is to be regretted that both Mr. Phelan 
and his engineering coadjutor, Mr. Manson, were ignorant of these 
errors, since their effect has been to make the water-supply of the 
Tuolumne appear to the jiublic (which knows nothing of the distinction 
between average and minimum run-off) about twenty times as great as 
is really the fact. Even com])aring average years, Mr. Phclan's state- 
ment of 24 inches run-off from 1500 sc|uare miles and Mr. Grunsky's 
claim of only 14 inches from 536 square miles make the water-produc- 
tion of the Tuolunme su|)i)l\- in average years about five times as great, 
according to Mr. Phelan, as claimed by Mr. Grunsky. 

Before leaving this brief consideration of the Tuolumne, it will be 
■of interest to compare its water-producing capability with that of the 
American-Cosumnes area of the Bay Cities Water Company. 

The latter area comprises 396 square miles of Sierra territory, on 
the South Fork of the American River and the North Fork of the 
Cosumnes River. It has mean annual rainfalls varying in different 
parts from 45 inches to over 70 inches, the average for the whole area 
of 396 square miles being 59.7 inches. These mean rainfalls are from 
the map of the California Water and Forest Association, 1900, Marsden 
Manson, C. E., used in conjvmctiun with all available subsequent infor- 
mation. The final result of 59.7 inches mean annual rainfall is reliable, 
being confirmed, among other local data, by rainfall observations of 
from one to six years duration at eight stations within the catchment- 

It is worthy of mention that the rainfall lines of the Water and As.sociation Map give a mean annual rainfall of 49.3 inches for 
the Tuolumne area. However, as Mr. Grunsky's report of 1902 was 
written two years after the publication of that map and with a full 
knowledge of it, it may be presumed that he doubted the correctness 
of its rainfall line§ over the Tuolumne area. His statement of the mean 
annual rainfall of the Tuolumne, 36 inclifes, will be used in the com- 

The comparison can best be shown by tabulation, as below. The 
sources of most of the data have already been mentioned — being Mr. 
Grunsky's Report of 1902, his Revised Run-off Curves of 1904, the 
Water and Forest Association Map of 1900, U. S. Government Contour- 


maps, etc., etc. The niininnini annual rainfall ( snow inchuled ) is t'lken 
as half of the mean, as was clone by Mr. Grunsky for tlie Tnolunme. 


.\ M K K I C .■"I X -COS I 'M N KS 

Catchment Area 

536 sq. miles-100'/< 

396 sq. miles 

- 74'/f 

Mean Annual Rainfall.s vary from 

20 ins. -50 ins. 

45 ins. - over 

70 ins. 

Average Mean Annual Rainfall 

36 ins. -KiO'/, 

59.7 ins. 

- 1669t 

" Minimum " " (i) 

IS ins. -lOO'/c 

29.8 ins. 

- 166'/<- 

Mean Annual Run-off (Average) 

14.0 ins. -100% 

32.0 ins. 

- 229% 

Minimum " " ( " ) 

3,4 ins. -1007( 

9.9 ins. 

- 291% 

Catch. Area x Av. Mean Run-off- 

lOO'/c X 100%-100% 

74 '/P X 2297' 

- 168% 

" X " Min. 

100'/< X lOO'/f-lOO** 

7491) X 291 9t 

- 215% 

It is thus seen that the dependable stream-flow or water-producing 
capability of the Bay Cities Water Company's Catchment-area is in 
averai4e years over one and two-thirds times as great as that of the 
Tuolnnmc, while in years of least rainfall (the only ones to be seriously 
considered in relation to water-sui^ply ) it is more than twice as great. 

.\ brief consideration of the American-Cosumnes Project of the Bay 
Cities Water Comi)any will now be made on its own merits, regardless 
of other sources of sui)|ily. 

In considering the advisability of ac(|uiring a system of City water- 
supi)ly. the (|uestions which arise are physical. legal and financial and 
mav be formulated somewhat as follows : 

( I ) Will the system furnish, and continue to furnish, an ample 
and reliable supply of pure water? 

(2) If pliysically satisfactory, can valid rights to the water and 
the svstem be accjuired by the city? 

(3 ) If physically desirable and legally accjuirable, will the benefits 
secured by tlie purchase be commensurate with its cost to the city."' 

My investigations as engineer of the Bay Cities Water Company 
have dealt witli the first of these fjuestions. Tlie second can be answered 
conclusively onlv b\- lawyers. I shall say nothing regarding it except 
that this c|'uestion was investigated by comi)etent lawyers before the 
Bay Cities Water Company acquired any rights in the American- 
Cosumnes Project, and the Con'ipany was advised that its contemiilated 
investment could safely be made and that the use of these waters for a 
San Francisco supplv could give rise to no serious legal objections, 
provided the contract's for supi)lying water wliich are yet unexpired be 
carried out ; and that the Company is under no obligation to renew such 
contracts when they expire. There will be no necessity of ceasing to 




serve the present users of tlie water, however, as the Bay Cities Water 
Company controls other water-properties, not available in connection 
with its i)ro])osed San Francisco supply, which are ample for these 
needs. The third question — the relation between benefit and cost — rests 
for its final decision with the voters of San Francisco. I shall, however, 
give a few facts which may aid in the decision. 

As to the physical facts of the American-Cosumnes Project I am 
able to s])eak with full authority, havinj^ s])ent in cngineerin<r studies of 
the project not only about a year net of my own time, but nearly two 
years time of a larf^e, e.\])cnsivc and efficient ens^ineeriufr de])artmcnt. 
It was realized in the be^'^inninf^ that the full facts could be obtained 
only by patient, honest and lonj^-continued en.s^ineerinj^ surveys and 
investigations and that such work is necessarily costly ; and while all 
money was expended with care, the cost of obtaining the nece.s.sary data 
was never allowed to ])revent its acquirement. The cost to San Fran- 
cisco of its investigation of the Tuolunmc su])])ly is said to have been 
$40,000. The I Jay Cities Water Company has already expended a still 
larger sum in the engineering investigation of its American-Cosumnes 
Project — and has secured data for use in connection either with city 
water-supi)ly or the development of hydraulic i)ower well worth its 
great cost. 

The chief i)h\ sical facts to be learned about a new water sup]ilv are 
(i) as to the purity of the water and the ])robability of its so con- 
tinuing; (2) the amounts of rainfall and stream-flow which may be 
dei)ended on in the years, with their distributions; and (3) the 
number, distribution and individual and aggregate capacities of the 
various practicable reservoir-sites within the catchment-area. The 
results of my engineering investigations of the 15ay Cities Water Com- 
pany's project will be given very briefly under these headings. 

The first consideration in a water-supply is the purity of its water. 
Conclusive proof has been obtained of the purity of the .\merican- 
Cosumnes su])ply by analyses of .samples of the water from Silver Lake, 
Echo Lake, the American River at the head of the Canal and the 
Cosumncs River at L)uck"s Bar. samples were taken in the fall 
of 1905, when the water in the streams was at its lowest stage and the 
number of campers greatest. The report of the chemists (Thomas 
Price and Son) shows all the samples to be of unusual purity — even 
that from Ruck's Bar, the lowest point on the catchment-area and the 
only one with the remotest probability of contamination. Quoting 
from their report, "The foregoing analyses show these waters to possess 
a degree of purity which is not cc|ualled by that supplied to any large 
city in the world." 

This conclusion could be confidently expected, as unprejudiced 
engineers know the water from all Sierra sources to be of unusual 
purity except where contaminated by mining camps, wastes from mines, 
and human habitations. There are no mines (and no permanent popu- 
lation of any kind) on the 238 square miles of American River territory, 
while on the 158 square miles of Cosumnes territory there are no 
oi)crating mines and only one mine, with 15 men employed, doing pros- 
pecting work. The mining activity in all this region has been decreas- 
ing for years past, as has the population within the Cosumnes catch- 



ment-arca. Neither is there any hkehhood of a revival of tlie iiiiniii^ 
(never of any magnitude), as the Mariposa slates of the Mother Lode 
do not extend so far eastward and the small amount of hydraulic mining 
done in earlier years is now permanently discouraged by the debris laws. 

Whether shown ]nire by analysis or not. the uninterrupted safety of 
any catchment-area for purposes of city water-su])ply may be judged 
relatively by its number of inhabitants. Catchment-areas with large 
populations can be so inspected and regulated as to make their water 
entirely safe for city use ( the water-sui)ply of New York, a very healthy 
city, is now furnished from a catchment-area having jjopula- 
tion ) : but on the other hand, a slack ins]jection or regulation of ])()pu- 
lated areas may lead to serious e])idemics, while very s])arsely inhabitcil 
or uniiihal)itc<l areas are beyond suspicion and ])ractically beyond need 
of insi)ection or regulation. 

The catchment-areas of the Uay Cities W ater Com])any are i)rac- 
tically uninhal)ited. From careful estimates of population, made inde- 
pendently i)y different people and agreeing closely with each other and 
with County records, it is known that the .\merican River Catchment- 
area has absolutely no permanent inhabitants except three ditch-tenders 
and their families, while its population during the summer months 
( including guests at hotels but not including campers ) is only about 
65 on its area of 238 square miles. During the summer months the 
po]nilation of the Consunmes Catchment-area is only about 305 ( inclml- 
ing guests at hotels but not including campers). During the winter its 
po])ulation is still less. Of these 305. about 100 are at Grizzly Flat and 
120 at I'lea.sant X'alley. Neither Grizzly Flat nor Pleasant \ alley 
territory need be included within the catchment-area utilized for a San 
Francisco su])ply for many years to come, and when they are included 
the Pleasant \ alley pojndation will be almost entirely wiped out by a 
reservoir which should be located on the site of the slowly dying village, 
while Grizzly F'lat will be about ten miles from the next reservoir below. 

As to the summer campers, their number is not great and is cer- 
tainl}' negligible in comparison with the large and constantly increasing 
number of tourists who visit tlie Tuolunmc each summer. 

To conclude these few remarks as to the purity of the American- 
Cosumnes water and the freedom of its catchment-area from contami- 
nating influences, chemical analyses show the water to be pure at 
present ; the population is less than one per square mile during even the 
siUTimer months and this population is decreasing ; and the recent 
extension of the forest-reserve limits to cover 249 square miles of the 
catchment-area will tend to still further decrease its use for human 

The investigations under the second heading — Amounts of Rainfall 
and Stream Flow — made use of all published data, also of all other data 
that could be secured. The published data consists mainly of records 
of rainfall and stream-flow of Sierra territory for years past, as con- 
tained in the publications of the U. S. Weather Bureau and the U. S. 
Geological Survey. Among the unpublished data are records of rain- 
fall and stream-flow taken with great care by the Standard Electric 
Company and worked up imder my own direction by the engineer in 
charge of the observations; also rainfall and stream-flow measurements 



taken by my own assistants, these observations being still in progress. 
The published rainfall data which appeared doubtful was carefully 
examined into. In one intsance ( Shingle Springs ) the original record, 
kept by an English physician, was hunted down by tracing the move- 
ments of a son of the observer until he was found in Sacramento and 
from him obtaining the original record-book kept by his father, showing 
the rainfall at Shingle Springs for 1849 ^^'^'^ many years thereafter. 

The physical data collected under my own direction consists not 
only of rainfall, snow-fall and stream-flow observations on the catch- 
ment-area, but also of surveys of twenty-four separate reservoir-sites 
and dam-sites, and of canal locations and tunnel locations. These 
sui"veys were begun in the fall of 1905 and continued and completed, by 
four survey parties, in the summer and fall of 1906. 

Data only has so far been referred to. Such data is absolutely 
essential to the careful investigation of a water-supply, but it is only 
preliminary to the real investigation and no more important than the 
subse(|uent working out of the problem. The latter is indeed much the 
higher class of engineering work. It is a popular error to look on 
surveying as synonymous with civil engineering. This idea is entirely 
erroneous, surveying being merely a means of collecting a certain class 
of data for the use of civil engineers. The real engineering consists in 
making use of such data, by proper methods, to form definite and reliable 
conclusions. While much time and great cost has been expended by 
the Bay Cities Water Company in acquiring data in the field, still more 
time and cost has been expended in carefully and conscientiously work- 
ing up such data in the office. It cannot be expected that a two years' 
investigation will be described in a few minutes in a short paper, there- 
fore I will close the consideration of the amount of water which can 
be supplied for City use by a proper development of the American- 
Cosunmes Catchment-area by giving a list of the results of the inves- 
tigation, without further comment than to say that all results were 
worked out with great care and with an honest effort to ascertain the 
truth without favor to the Bay Cities Water Companw 

The reservoir surveys show that an aggregate water-storage of 
104,900 million gallons may be secured in eighteen reservoirs. These 
reservoirs are all practicable and can be created by dams of practicable 
height and cost. Six other reservoir sites were surveyed, but were 
rejected because their capacity was too small to justify the cost of their 

The investigation shows that by the combined use of the stream-flow 
and above reservoir storage, a continuous and dependable water-supply 
of over 317 million gallons per day can be furnished throughout the year known. It also shows that 198 million gallons of this total 
would be furnished b\- the fully developed American River area alone, 
or 215 million gallons if the Sly Park area of the Cosumnes is added; 
and 119 million gallons by the developed Co.sumnes area. Also that 
the combined American-Cosumnes area, excluding only Pleasant Valley 
and Buck's Bar reservoirs and their tributary areas, can be depended 
upon to furnish a continuous daily supply of 242 million gallons 
throughout the dryest years. 


From an extension of Professor Marx' estimate, San Francisco will 
require a daily water-supply of 317 million gallons in about 1975, or 
say 70 years in the future. From an extension of a iniblished estimate 
by Mr. Schussler, this amount of water will not be required until about 
2030, or until say 120 years hence. Professor Mar.x' and Mr. Schuss- 
ler's estimates of future population, extende<l, show a population of 
3,000,000 people in the years 1995 and 2040 respectively; and this 
population, at a per capita con,sumption of 100 j:^allons per day (nuich 
more than now used) would nearly exhaust tlie 317 million gallons 
daily supply. It therefore appears that should San Francisco acquire 
the American-Cosumnes project of the Bay Cities Water Company, she 
would not (even if her present supj)ly be left out of consideration) find 
it necessary to seek an additional source of supply for at least 70 years 
to come and perhajis not for more than 100 years. 

The final consideration mentioned — what San Francisco will get in 
return for its cost should she jiurchase the American-Cosumnes Project 
of the Hay Cities Water Company — will now be treated briefly. To 
begin with, her purchase will give her the water-rights, many of them 
in use for more than thirty years past, on 396 square miles of Sierra 
territory having a high rainfall and stream-Il(3w, and 249 square miles 
of which are now within the U. S. Forest Reserve. These water-rights 
include property or flowage-rights to numerous re.servoir-sites as well 
as the right of diversion from the streams, and give the city control of 
all natural features necessary for the development and control of a 
watcr-sui)ply with an ultimate capacity of 317 million gallons per day 
throughout the dryest years. Also, incidentally, a water-power (levelop- 
ment is practicable of over 50,000 Theoretical, or over 30,000 Salable 
Horse Power. 

In addition to the projierty and flowagc-rights and the undeveloped 
water-supply resources which San I'Vancisco would secure, she would 
at once become possessed of a developed catchment-area capable of 
furnishing over 88 million gallons per day of water at the head of a 
pipe-line leading to San Francisco, and of furnishing over 16,000 
Theoretical, or over 10.000 Salable, Horse Power from the water. The 
completed structures necessary to this water-develo])ment and in which 
she would at once ac(|uire proi)erty rights would be briefly as follows: 

FIRST. An existing dam at Silver Lake impounding 1950 million 

SECOND. An existing dam at Echo Lakes, impounding 700 mil- 
lion gallons, with a short flume and tunnel to conduct water from the 
Lakes into the head waters of the American River. 

THIRD. An existing dam impounding 800 million gallons of 
water in the Medleys reservoir. 

FOURTH. A concrete-steel diversion dam 34 feet high on the 
South Fork of the American River at Slippery Ford, to divert water 
from the stream-bed into the American Canal. 

FIFTH. Concrete-steel head-works to this canal, 25 feet in height. 

SIXTH. Over seventeen miles of the American Canal enlarged to 
carry 100 million gallons per day, and with flumes, trestles, sand-boxes, 
waste-wiers and all apjjurtenances complete. 



SEVENTH. 'J'hc I'acific House Tunnel, about 2100 feet in length, 
to divert the waters of the American Canal through the ridge into the 
Cosunmes Catchment-area above Sly Park. This tunnel is to be of a 
capacity of 200 million gallons per day and to be furnished with proper 
head-gates, etc., to control the inflow of the water. 

EIGHTH. The fully developed Sly Park Reservoir, of over 11,000 
million gallons capacity. This reservoir would be created by two earth 
dams, one 161 feet in height and the other 92 feet in height; with the 
necessary spill-way, outlet tunnels,, etc. 

NINTH. A concrete-steel diversion dam 23 feet high in Camp 
Creek, to divert the waters from Sly Park Reservoir into the High- 
Line Canal ; also the neces.sary outlet tunnel, head-works, etc., to pass 
the water from behind the diversion dam into the High-Line Canal. 

TENTH. The High-Line Canal, about 15 miles in length, enlarged 
to carry 100 million gallons ])er day and provided with necessary 
appendages such as flumes, trestles, sand-boxes, relief gates, etc., and 
including a tunnel of about 1000 feet in length. 

It is thus seen that if the Bay Cities Water Company's Project be 
purchased, the City would not only acquire ownership in lands and 
rights sufficient to provide water for nearly a hundred years to come, 
but would also acc|nire works which would be ample to provide its 
water supply for at least twenty-five years to come. The additional 
works necessary to increase the developed supply from 88 to 317 million 
gallons per day would be of relatively low cost and need be added only 
gradually, throughout a period of seventy or eighty years. 

The offer of the Bay Cities Water Company now before San Fran- 
cisco provides only for bringing the water to the head of a pipe-line 
leading to the city. Before the city can make use of this water it must 
be carried many miles in an expensive conduit. In deciding upon the 
relative merits of two projects for the water-supply of San Francisco, 
not only the relative costs of the two developed catchment-areas must 
be considered but also the relative costs of their respective conduits to 
the City. This was recognized by the Bay Cities Water Company and 
months of careful study were expended on investigations for a pipe-line 
from the terminus of their proposed works to San Francisco. Nothing 
more will be said of this pipe-line investigation than that good data were 
secured for it and the problem worked out in a very pains-taking and 
thorough manner. The result of the investigation, stated very briefly, 
is that the American-Cosumnes supply can be connected with San 
Francisco by a pipe-line around the south end of the Bav which will be 
over eighteen miles shorter than the conduit from Tuolumne proposed 
by Mr. Grunsky ; and that the American-Cosumnes pipe-line, with a 
carrying capacity 22 per cent, greater and a factor-of-safety (margin 
of strength ) 25 per cent greater than the Tuolumne pipe-line proposed 
by Mr. Grunsky, can be completed for about four million dollars less 
than his estimated cost for tlie Tuolumne conduit. 

In conclusion, it is extremely improbable that the Tuolumne supply 
can ever be secured by San Francisco, and if secured it will yield less 



than half as much stream-flow as will the American-Cosiimnes area. 
The partisans of the Tuolumne supply have repeatedly claimed for it, 
in comparing it with the American-Cosumnes. that it would be without 
cost to San Francisco. This is not a fact. Even if the Tuolumne could 
be secured from the Government and were the best source of supply of 
any, large sums must be expended for dams and canals before a water- 
supply is developed : while the oft'er of the Bay Cities Water Company 
includes the transfer to the City not only of lands and water-rights, but 
also of all the com])leted structures necessary to develop a water-supply 
one-half greater than Mr. Grunsky's proposed Tuolumne supply. 

The American-Cosumnes Project of the Bay Cities Water Company 
offers to San Francisco a supply of pure water, from a practically un- 
inhabited region, sufficient in quantity to serve the city for perhaps a 
hundred years to come. It offers not only a much larger immediate 
supply than that proposed by Mr. Grunsky from the Tuolumne, but 
also at no great increase in cost, for a system completed to San Fran- 
cisco, above his estimate for the completed Tuolumne system. The 
capability and practicability of the American-Cosumnes area as a source 
of water supply for San Francisco has been thoroughly studied and the 
results placed in form for quick investigation by others. Finally, it has 
a very decided advantage over the Tuolumne in being controlled by 
one corporate interest and hence free to be acquired by San Francisco 
at once, without long delay and probably ultimate failure in attempting 
to .secure permission to it from the Government; and what San 
Francisco needs if her prosperity is to be uninterrupted is not only a 
larger and a better water-supply than she now has, but also that one 
shall be acquired with the least possible delay. 

EDWIN DURYEA, JR., M. Am. Soc. C. E., 

Chief Engineer Bay Cities Water Co. 

San Francisco, Cal.. March ii, 1907. 

A Complete and Exact Copy 

01< THE 



April 9 and May 21, 1906. 

April 9, 1906. 

To the Honorable the Board of Supervisors of the City and County of 
San Francisco. 


In conformity with tlio conditions set forth in Resolution No. 7130, 
adopted by your Honorable Body on the 12th day of March, 1906, Bay 
Cities Water Company, a corporation under the laws of California, 
respectfully submits the following proposition for your consideration. 

For the price hereinafter set forth Bay Cities Water Company pro- 
poses to in the City and County of San Francisco certain water 
rights, reservoir rights, water-storage rights, reservoirs, reservoir sites, 
dams, canals, flumes, ditches and tunnels, rights of way and power 
house site, together with existing improvements, and further improve- 
ments to be made thereon under this proposition, said rights and prop- 
erties being located in El Dorado, Amador and Alpine Counties, Cali- 

These rights and properties present the following important 
features, all of which have been conclusively established by the most 
accurate and detailed investigation of eminent hydrographic engineers, 
who have been employed upon this work by proponent company for 
many months past : 

FIRST. That the water rights are fundamental and so control the 
waters naturally flowing in the South Fork of American River and its 
tributaries above the intake of the El Dorado Water and Deep Gravel 
Mining Company's canal, and of the North Fork of the Cosumnes 
River and its tributaries above Buck's Bar ; that these waters may be 
taken to the extent of two hundred or more million gallons per day. 
See schedule of Water Appropriations marked "Exhibit A". 

SECOND. That all desirable water-storage rights within the drain 
area tributary to the South Fork of American River and North Fork of 
Cosumnes River, above the points named, heretofore secured by location 
and appropriation, have been acquired and are comprehended by and 
included within this proposition. See schedule of Water Reservoir 
Locations marked "Exhibit B". 


TllIRD. That the reservoirs embraced within this proposition, 
inchuHng those now constructed and sucli as these proponents will con- 
struct at their own cost under this proposition, have an aggregate 
storage capacity for reserves against a continuing daily draft of seventy- 
five million gallons of water. See schedule of Reservoirs marked 
"Exhibit C". 

FOURTH. That when the existing and proposed reservoirs shall 
be suitably and practicably enlarged and additional reservoirs created 
upon other available sites, they will comprise storage for that c|uantity 
of water requisite to a continuing daily draft of two hundred million 
gallons ®f water. See schedule of Additional Reservoir Sites marked 
"Exhibit D". 

FIP^TH. That the dams creating the existing reservoirs, and those 
to be erected' by proponents under this pro]X)sal, comprise all dams that 
will be required until such time as the water consumption of the city 
shall exceed .seventy-five million gallons of water per day. See schedule 
of Dams marked "Exhibit E". 

SIXTH. That the existing canals, ditches and tunnels, together 
with such improvements thereon and additions thereto as i)roponents 
will make under this proposal, comprise a system of conduits sufficient 
for the concentration at a common point, hereinafter referred to, of a 
quantity of water sufficient to provide a continuing daily draft of 
seventy-five million gallons. See schedule and brief description of 
Canals, Ditches and Tunnels marked "Exhibit F". 

SEVENTH. That the natural channels, canals and rigiits of way 
embraced within this proposition, are such as will be rc(|uired for 
collecting waters from the various storage reservoirs and delivering 
the same at a common point, to the extent of providing at that point 
a continuing daily draft of two hundred or more million gallons. See 
schedule marked "Exhibit G". 

EIGHTH. That the lands and properties embraced within this 
proposition and to which fee simple title is to be conveyed to the City 
and Countv of San F'rancisco, embrace various canals, ditches, reservoir 
land and timber lands, inclusive of a tract of adequate area and suitable 
location for j)ower generating station and head-works for pipe lines 
leading therefrom to the City and County of San Francisco. See 
Property Maps i, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10 and 1 1. 

NINTH. That this proposition embraces .stumpage contracts upon 
timber lands and easements upon lands privately owned that are 
required for use in connection with the ultimate conservation and 
delivery at the upper end of pipe lines leading to the city, of a con- 
tinuing daily draft of two hundred million gallons of water. See 
Property Maps i, 3, 5, 8, 9. 10 and 11. 

TENTH. That this pro])osition also embraces the right to use all 
lantls belonging to the United States Government the use of which has 
been heretofore granted to proponent and its predecessors, which are 
essential to the conservation and delivery of a daily supply of two 
hundred or more million gallons of water as aforesaid. See Proj)erty 
Maps I. 2. 3, 4. 7 and 9. 



ELEVENTH. That the watersheds, the runoff from which is 
controlled through ownership and control of the water rights, reser- 
voirs and reservoir sites referred to, have the capacity requisite to the 
production of water in sufificient quantities to provide against a con- 
tinuing daily draft of two hundred or more million gallons of water 
per day. See Description of Watershed marked "Exhibit H" and 
engineering data to be submitted. 

TWELFTH. That the daily water supply of seventy-five million 
gallons above referred to, will be delivered at such an elevation above 
the headworks of pipe lines leading to the city as to enable the develop- 
ment therefrom of such power as may be required to force that <|uan- 
tity of water through the pipe lines leading to the City and County of 
San Franci.sco, and all other electric power neces.sarily incidental. Also 
that when the additional improvements necessary to a daily supply of 
two hundred million gallons are made, that such additional power as 
will then i)e required for the same ])urposc can readily l)e developed 
from the water at the same point. 

Tll iRTEENTI I. That the i)oint at which the two hundred million 
gallons of daily water supply can lie concentrated under this j^roposal, 
consists of a tract of at least forty acres of lantl located upon the banks 
of the North Fork of Cosumnes River in El Dorado County, California, 
about one hundred and twenty miles from San Francisco. And that it 
possesses th.e natural advantages requisite to a site for power generating 
stations, anil the intake of pipe lines for the purpose of conveying 
water therefrom to the City and County of San Francisco. See Prop- 
erty Map No. II. 

FOURTEENTH. That the water procurable from the sources 
embraced within this pro])osition, is such as usually originates upon the 
high, rocky mountains of the Sierra Nevada range ; that it is soft, 
])ossessed of an imusual degree of purity and is in every respect as 
desirable for human consuni])tion and general use as any water in the 
State of California, or elsewhere in the world. See Analyses of the 
Water marked "Exhibit I". 

FIFTEENTH. That the improvements now existing upon said 
])ro])erties, together with those which these proponents will make 
thereon at their own cost under this propo,sal, will be such as to amply 
])rovide at the point of intake of pipe lines to San Francisco, against a 
continuing draft of seventy-five million gallons of water per day. A 
schedule of the improvements to be made by and at the cost of these 
pro])onents under this proposal, is hereto attached and marked "Ex- 
hibit K". 

corporation under the laws of California, under this i)roposition ofTers 
to the City and County of San Francisco 

(1) All rights existing under and by virtue of the several water 
and re.servoir site appropriations set forth in Exhibits A and B hereto 
attached. Also 

(2) All the reservoir sites specified and described in Exhibits C 
and D hereto attached, together with the dams now existing and to be 



constructed by these proponents under this proposal, described in 
Exhibit E. Also the betterments and improvements described in said 
last named exhibit and in Exhibit K. Also 

( 3 ) All the several tunnels, canals, ditclics. flumes and conduits 
described in Exhibit F hereto attached, inclusive of the tunnel to be 
constructed by these proponents connecting the American and Cosumnes 
watersheds, as descrii)ed in said exhibit and in Exhil)it K. Also 

(4) The several rights of way for the construction of canals, 
ditches, etc.. described in Exhibit G hereto attached. Also 

(5) A fee simple title to the several tracts of land indicated upon 
Property Maps i. 5, 6. 7. 8. 9, 10 and 11. Also 

(6) Easements u])on the several tracts of land indicated upon 
Property Maps i, 3. 5. 8, 9. 10 and 1 1. Also 

( 7 ) The rights acquired from and ceded by the United States 
Government, upon the several tracts of land indicated upon Property 
Maps I, 2, 3, 4, 7 and 9. Also 

(8) All of the improvements to be made upon said properties 
described in Exhibit K hereto attached. 

together with the im])rovcmcnts now existing thereon and sucli as are 
to Ije made lliereon by tliese pro])i.)nents in accordance herewith, to be 
conveyed to. and delivered into the ])ossession of tlie City and County 
of San Franci.sco by these proponents for the gross purchase price or 
sum of ten million five hundred tliousand ($10,500,000) dollars to be 
paid to these projjonents, their successors or assigns, in L'nited States 
gold coin at such times and in such payments as may be agreed upon 
between the Hoard of Supervisors of the City and County of San 
Francisco and your jjroponents, upon the acceptance of this proposition. 

For the jnirpose of com])arison merely and of accentuating the value 
and desirability of this water sujjply for the City and County of San 
Francisco, the proponents rec|uest your Honorable Hoard to consider 
it in relation to the most prominently mooted and heretofore best known 
])roposed municipal water supply, namely, that known as the Hetch 
Hctchy or Tuolunme system recommended by former City Engineer 
("irunsky and recently again endorsed by ex-Mayor Phelan. 

i^i — PRICE. Tlie Tuolumne scheme, assuming that titles and 
])ermits can be obtained, would according to the official estimate of Mr. 
Grunsky, cost the city $39,531,000. This includes the city distributing 
system. Ilasecl on the figures and estimates found in Mr. Grunsky's 
re])ort on the Tuolunme ])n)ject. the cost of the water system submitted 
by pro])onents. from the f>oiiit of intake 7cliere the pipe lines to the city 
connneiice. including all i)ii)e lines, pumping plants, safety reservoirs 
and city distributing system, would not exceed $27,500,000, and might 
be constructed for considerably less. 

Taking the last named figure, however, as a basis, the total cost of 
the i)roject herewith submitted — complete — would be $38,000,000. mak- 
ing a saving over the proposed Tuolumne supply of over one and one- 
half million of dollars. 



#2— QUANTITY OF WATER. The uninterrupted continuous 
daily supply furnished from this project on first development, would be 
seventy-five millions of gallons as against sixty million gallons contem- 
plated by the Tuolumne scheme. ]\Ioreover, storage capacity and rights 
developable to a daily continuing and constant supply of two hundred 
millions of gallons are includecl without extra charge to the city, as 
against a possible maximum development from the Tuolumne of one 
hundred and sixty million gallons ])cr day. 

4^3 — TITLE. The city will own its own property, its own water, 
its own reservoirs and its own rights of way, if it shall acquire the 
property herein submitted. Whereas in the proposed Tuolumne supply 
it is doubtful whether any satisfactory or sufficient rights will ever be 
conferred on the city b\' the Federal Government ; and even if such 
rights should eventually and after additional years of further delay and 
difficulty be obtained, they might not be permanent and they ])robably 
would never amount to a title. We propose to convey and to vest in the 
city an absolute title as heretofore specified. 

#4— QUALITY OF WATER. It is absolutely free from pollu- 
tion and of the purest mountain sources. 

— EXPEDIENCY. The waters in this projjosed system are 
taken from the Northern Sierras and from districts everywhere amply 
supplied with necessary water for irrigation, for industrial enterprises 
and for domestic purposes. The taking of these waters for San Fran- 
cisco will make no substantial change or cause any aj^preciable loss or 
damage to any of the people engaged in develojMng the wealth and 
resources of the State — to the ultimate benefit and advantage of the 
City of San Francisco ; while the taking of the waters of the Southern 
Sierras as is contemplated by the Tuolumne project, would inevitably 
bring .sufifering and injury to and infiict irreparable damage on the vast 
mining and agricultural industries of the Southern and Central portions 
of our State, — none too well supplied even now with the prime necessity 
of their industrial life — pure frosh water — in sufficient quantities for 
constant and continuous use. 

It is this consideration which has moved large bodies of the popula- 
tion of that section of our State to protest against the diverting of their 
natural water supplies from their own to this city's use; and it is their 
protest, based on these considerations, which has been given such official 
heed by the Government officers at Washington as to have prevented 
San Francisco up to this date, from making any satisfactory i)rogress 
in the acquisition of the rights necessary to create and develop this 
Tuolumne scheme of water .supply. And irrespective of any legal rights, 
it would seem to these proponents that the City of San Francisco, seeing 
its own interests in the fruitful and steady development of the interior 
portions of our State, would, aside from any ground of sentiment, 
exercise a wise judgment in securing its water su])ply from points where 
neither State develoi)ment nor private citizen's prosperity would be 
menaced by the taking of the waters, and preferentially seek its water 
sup])ly from the abundant and co])ious sources of the Northern Sierras — 
scantily drawn u])on for local needs — rather than from the sparser sup- 



plies of the Soutlieni and Central Sierras, nearly all (jf which are re- 
quired for local use. 

In conclusion, this company, if its proposition be favorably con- 
sidered and accepted, will give a sufficient bond absolutely to guarantee 
to the city the sui)ply indicated of seventy-five millions of gallons of 
water per day, with potential development to two hundred millions of 
gallons i)er day, at the price named. Water deliverable at the point of 
pipe line intake, and all water, water rights, reservoirs, anil riglits of 
way, and all works and constructions necessary to ])roduce said sup|)ly 
of seventy-five million gallons ])cr day ( with potential capacity of two 
hundred million gallons per day as herein set forth ) tw be delivered and 
conveyed to the City and County of San Francisco for said ])ricc. free 
and clear of all liens and encumbrances and title clear. 
Res|)ect fully submitted, 

W W crriKS w atkr comp.-wy, 

l!v W lLLl.VM S. TE\ IS. President. 

April 9, 19CX). 

EX H T 1! I T S 

A, li, C, D, E, F, G, 11. I an<l K 


PRO PO S I T lO \ 



The water rights included in this proposition embrace all rights of 
the El Dorado Water and Deep Gravel Mining Company and its pre- 
decessors in interest, to the waters of the South Fork of American River 
and its tributaries available to the intake of the canal (built by that 
conii)any and its predecessors), in Section 29 of Township 11 North 
of Range 15 East, M. D. M., El Dorado County, California. Also to 
all of the water rights of Bradley, I'erdan and Company; Jones. Fur- 
man and Comjiany, Eureka Canal Com]:)any, Park Canal and Alining 
Company, and others constituting the Diamond Ridge Ditch System, 
to the waters of North Fork of Cosunmes River and its tributaries 
above Buck's Bar, in Section 7 of Township 9 North of Range 12 East. 
M. D. M., El Dorado County, California. 

The appropriations of water here cited are of necessity confined to 
those appearing upon the official records. The water rights, however, 
were principally acquired by location and use in 1851 and 1852, at 
which time recordation of appropriations was not provided for by law. 
Use under these appropriations has continued without interruption to 
the present time, and these rights include substantially all the waters 
of the territory above referred to. 

In the following schedule quantities of water appropriated are stated 
in miner's inches; 77.;i7 such inches are the equivalent of 1,000.000 
gallons per day. 



Miner's Inches 

Waters of Stream or Lake. 
Martin's Lake. 
Silver Lake. 
Red or Clear Lake. 
Audrain's Lake. 
Lakes and Ponds of Slippery 

6 May, 1872. 

6 Mav. 1872. 

6 Mav, 1872. 

f) May. 1872. 

6 May, 1872. 


Ford branch of South Fork 

American River. 








Alder Creek. 





Mill ( sometimes called Wolf) 





^lill ( sometimes called Wolf ) 






Plum Creek. 





Echo Lakes and Creek. 

1 6 




Alder Creek. 

1 6 




Plum Creek. 





Echo Lakes. 





Silver Lake. 





Red or Clear Lake. 





Martin's Lake. 





Audrain's Lake. 



' 873. 


Slipjierv Ford branch of 

South Fork American River. 





Strawbcrrv Creek. 





-Ml lakes and streams fin"nish- 

injj water to South Fork 

.American River. 





Silver Lake. 





Echo Lakes. 





.Audrain's Lake. 


Se])tcmber. 1874. 

All waters. 

Plum Creek. 


October, 1875. 

All waters. 

Medley Lakes and tributaries. 


November, 1875. 

1 0.(X)0 

Twin Lakes. 





Medley Lakes at outlet. 

1 1 

October, 1899. 

1 0,000 

Lake Henry, or Lake George. 



.Miner's Inches. 

Waters of Stream or Lake. 


July. 1872. 


Sly I'ark Creek. 

2 Z, 

Sc])tember, 1873. 


North Fork Cosumnes River. 


September, 1873. 


North Fork Cosumnes River. 


Sei)t ember. 1873. 


Park Creek. 


September. 1873. 

( ).000 

Camp Creek. 


September. 1873. 


Camj) Creek. 


January. 1875. 


Cam]) Creek. 


January, 1873. 


Park Creek. 


January. 1873. 


North Fork Cosumnes River. 


January. 1875. 


Sly Park Creek. 


Ai)ril. 1873. 


North Fork Cosumnes River. 


April. 1873. 


Park Creek. 


.April. 1873. 


Camp Creek. 


-August. 1873. 


Sly Park Creek. 


Sei)t ember. 1875. 


North Fork Cosumnes River. 


September. 1875. 


Camp Creek. 


December. 1877. 


Steeley's Fork Cosumne 



North Fork Cosumnes River. 





Schedule of reservoir appropriations upon South Fork of American 
River and the lakes and streams and tributary thereto above the site 
of the projected tunnel connecting the American and Cosumnes water- 

Also of reservoir appropriations upon the North Fork of Cosumnes 
River and its tributaries above Buck's Bar. 

These locations were made pursuant to the provisions of an act of 
Congress aj^proved July 26, 1866. 

NOTE — The a])])ropriations here cited are largely renewals of un- 
recorded a]ipropriations made prior to the passage of the act of March 
27, 1872, requiring that such notices be recorded. 


Reservoir Locations. 

Martin's Lake. 

Silver Lake. 

Red or Clear Lake. 

Audrain's Lake. 

Alder Creek. 

Mill Creek. 

Plum Creek. 

Echo Lakes. 

Silver Lake. 

Echo Lakes. 

Audrain's Lake. 

PI m Creek. 

Medley Lakes. 

Twin Lakes. 

Alpine Creek. 


Reservoir Locations. 

Park Ranch. 

Hazel Valley. 

North Fork Cosumnes River. 

Sly Park Creek. 

Camp Creek. 




The first three of the following named reservoirs have been con- 
structed and in continuous use for many years. The fourth is to be 


6 May, 1872 

6 May, 1872 

6 May, 1872 

6 May, 1872 

7 May, 1872 

7 May, 1872 

7 May, 1872 

13 May, 1872 

16 May, 1872 

16 May, 1872 

17 May, 1873 

28 September, 1874. 

25 October, 1875 

23 November, 1875. 
23 November, 1875. 

25 September, 1873. 
25 September, 1873. 
25 September, 1873. 
16 December, 1874.. 
18 October, 1883 


constructed by these ])roponein.s. These four reservoirs, liavinc; an 
a,i;.nregate capacity of fourteen tliousand and fifty-eij^ht inilhon gallons, 
will jjrovidc the storage necessary to a continuing daily draft of seventy- 
five million gallons. The reservoirs are viz.: 


This lake is situated in Townships 9 and 10 Xorth of Range 17 East, 
M. D. M., Amador County, California, at the headworks of Silver Fork 
of South Fork of American River and at elevation about 7.800 feet 
above the sea. 

It has been improved and continuously used as a reservoir for more 
than thirty years ; and. as imjjroved. has an available storage capacity 
for one thousand nine hundred and fifty million gallons of water, which 
can be very considerably increased at moderate cost. 


Comprising Big and Little Echo Lakes, which are connected by a 
channel. The location is in Townships 11 and 12 North of Range 17 
East, \l. D. ^L. El Dorado County, California, and at elevation about 
7,400 feet above sea level. 

The natural drainage is into tiie l'i)i)er Truckece River, thence to 
Lake Tahoe and to the iluml)ol(lt Desert. Many years ago. however, 
the divide was tunneled and the waters brought into the head of South 
Fork of American River in connection with the waters of which they 
have since been continuously utilized. The available storage ca])acity 
of these lakes, as at ])rescnt im])roved, is six hundred and eight million 
gallons of water. This capacity can be largely increased when needed. 


This group of lakes, known as "The Devil's Basin," is situated in 
Township 12 Xorth of Ranges 16 and 17 East, M. D. M.. El Dorado 
County. California, an elevation above tidewater of about 8,400 feet. 
Tiic basin comprises thirty or forty small lakes hollowed out of solid 
granite by glacial action, and connected together by narrow channels. 
They have been converted into a reservoir by the erection of a dam 
across their common outlet. Tyramid Creek: and, as improved, provide 
available storage for eight hundred million gallons of water. This 
available storage capacity is readily susce])til)le of material increase at 
very low cost. 


This reservoir, to be constructed by these ])roponents by erection of 
dams. etc.. as later set forth herein, on Park and Hazel Creeks, is to be 
located in Townshij) 10 Xorth of Range 13 East. ^L D. ^L, El Dorado 
County. California, and at elevation about 3.500 feet above the sea. 
It will be so situated that, in addition to its natural tributary drain area, 
the entire drain area of tlie u])per South Fork of .American River and 
L'pi)er Camp Creek, become tributary to it. The available capacity of 
this reservoir under first im])r()vements, will be ten thousand seven 
hundred million gallons. 





As the water requirements of the city from time to time increase 
beyond a daily consumption of seventy-five million gallons, it will be 
necessary to increase the aggregate storage capacity of the mountain 
reservoirs from the total of fourteen thousand and fifty-eight million 
gallons, provided as per Exhibit C, to a grand total of fifty thousand 
eight hundred and ninety million gallons. To enable this increase when 
and as re(|uired. the following reservoir sites are to be utilized, viz: 


The location of this reservoir is stated in Exhibit C. In its ultimate 
development, through raising the height of the dam, its water retaining 
capacity can be increased four thousand one hundred and fifty million 
gallons, ])r(wi(ling it an ultimate available storage of six thousand one 
hundred million gallons. 


These lakes are situated in Township lo North of Ranges 17 and 
18 East, M. D. Alpine County, California, at elevation 7,900 feet 
above the sea. They are the source of Alpine Creek, a tributary of the 
Silver Fork of South Fork of American River. The waters fiovving 
therefrom have been utilized for many years, and the lakes have been 
controlled for reservoir purposes since prior to 1875. Improvements 
of moderate cost will give an available water storage capacity of six 
thousand three hundred million gallons. 


Is located in Township 11 North, Ranges 17 and 18 East M. D. M., 
El Dorado County, California, at elevation 7,200 feet and is the upper 
lake source of South Fork of American River. Its waters have been 
in constant use for a long series of years, but no dam has been erected 
for restraining storm water flows. By constructing necessary dams, 
gates, etc., for the installation of which prime natural advantages exist, 
the lake can be made to provide available storage for one thousand five 
hundred and seventy million gallons of water. 


For description of location, altitude, etc., see Exhibit C. Through 
increase of height of dam the original storage capacity of six hundred 
and eight million gallons can readily be increased to two thousand four 
hundred and fifty million gallons. 



The cliaracteristics, location and altitude of these lakes are set forth 
in Exhibit C. By raisinjj heij^ht of existing dam, which can be done 
at very low cost, the original storage capacity can be increased to three 
thousand million gallons. 


This reservoir site is located on the North Fork of Cosumnes River 
in Township y North of Range 14 East. M. D. M.. El Dorado County, 
California, at an elevation above sea level of about 5,100 feet. It is an 
admirable site and, when improved, will provide storage for one thou- 
sand six hundred and fifty million gallons of water. 


The Granite Basin reservoir site is located on Camp Creek in Town- 
ship 10 North of Range 15 East, D. M., El Dorado County, Cali- 
fornia, at elevation about 4,000 feet. The site is first-class and by easily 
made improvements, will ])rovide storage for one thousand one hundred 
and twenty million gallons of water. 

#8— SLY PARK. 

The location and elevation of this reservoir are fully set forth in 
Exhibit C, and while quite feasible to do so, the calculations made do 
not contemplate any increase of the ten thousand seven hundred million 
gallons capacity there stated. 

#9— BUCK'S BAR. 

This reservoir site is on North Fork of Cosumnes River in Town- 
ship 9 north of Range 12 East, M. D. M., El Dorado County. California, 
at 1,500 feet elevation above sea level. The site is exce])tionally fine, 
and the damsite a wonderful gorge of solid granite. When improved 
to its capacity, it will store eighteen thou.sand million gallons of water. 

It is projjer to direct attention to the fact that the relative locations 
of the several reservoirs above described is such tiiat, taken together, 
they form a remarkably tlcxible system. Thus, the waters of Silver, 
Twin and Audrain Lakes may be transferred to Sly Park or Buck's 
Bar ; those of Echo Lakes to Audrain Lake, Sly Park or Buck's Bar ; 
those of Medley Lakes to Sly Park or Buck's Bar ; those of Capp's 
Crossing to Sly Park or Buck's Bar ; those of Granite Basin to Sly Park 
or Buck's Bar, and those of Sly Park to Buck's Bar. Tlie waters of 
eight of the nine reservoirs, to-wit : Twin, Silver, Audrain, Echo and 
Medley Lakes, Capp's Crossing, Granite Basin and Sly Park can be 
delivered at the pipe line intake either by the High or Low Line Canal ; 
Buck's Bar alone being confined to the Low Line. 



KXIIiniT E. 



The dams which are now in place creating the reservoir at Silver, 
Echo and Medley lakes (see items i, 2 and 3 of Exhibit C), are vari- 
ously described as follows : 


The dam across the natural outlet of Silver Lake creating the present 
storage for water, is a simple but substantial rock-crib structure. It is 
equipped with appliances for controlling the discharge when the level 
of the lake is not above the spillway ; when above that level the water 
runs to waste, except as it may be recovered at the American Canal 

The dam has been in use for many years, and while not elegant is 
thoroughly ef¥ective. The present water-storage capacity of the reser- 
voir, as stated, is one thousand nine hundred and fifty million gallons, 
but economically susceptible of increase to six thousand one hundred 
million gallons, and probably more. 


The existing dam across the natural outlet of the Echo Lakes is a 
substantial structure fully ample to meet the storage requirements of 
the present and for several years to come. It is what is known as a 
"one-man boulder" dam filled with earth, and retains in store the six 
hundred and eight million gallons of water referred to in connection 
with the Echo Lakes reservoir. 

The dam is eqaipped with clie necessary gates for controlling the 
flow of water from the lakes, and is serviceable for many years. When 
increase of storage is necessary at this point to provide against an in- 
crease in the city's water requirements, a dam of required height can 
readily be constructed, and at moderate cost, increasing the storage 
capacity to two thousand four hundred and fifty million gallons. The 
natural facilities for construction are first-class. 


The waters impounded in the Medley Lakes are restrained by a 
rock-fill dam erected across the natural outlet. This structure has been 
in place since 1899, ^""^^ fully meets all requirements. Material for its 
enlargement when increased storage capacity is desired, is immediately 
at hand, and the natural facilities for building a high dam are ideal. A 
comparatively small investment would construct a dam which would 
quadruple the present storage capacity of the lakes, bringing it up 
from eight hundred million gallons as at present, to about tlirec thou- 
sand million gallons. 



At a point in the South Fork of American River in Section 28 of 
Township II North of Range 15 East, M. D. M., proponents will build 
across the channel of the stream a clam. 

This dam will be of stone and concrete substantially constructed on 
approved designs and provided with all required and convenient acces- 
sories for its safety and for controlling the waters of the stream and 
diverting them into the intake works of the canal leading thence to the 
tunnel into tlic Cosumncs watershed, later described herein. 


This structure is to be erected by proponents for the purpose of 
creating the additional storage rec|uisitfe to the jiroper reserves against 
a continuing daily draft of seventy-five million gallons of water. It 
will be an hydraulic fill dam built about a steel re-enforced concrete 
core-wall, the upjier face of the dam iieing properly jjrotected against 
water action by a suitable facing of stone rii^raj). The dam will be 
such as to create the stated storage ; it will have an ample and substan- 
tial spillway for the care of surplus waters, sluicing and draft pipes of 
proper dimensions will be supi)lied, and all necessary and convenient 
devices and appliances provided and installed conformaijle witli the best 
engineering jiractices. The site for the dam is excei)tionally fine and 
the materials at hand from which to construct it are of the very best 

This dam will create a storage reservoir having an available storage 
capacity of ten thousand .seven hundred million gallons of water. 


Proponents will also erect a masonry dam across Camp Creek in 
Section 26 of Town.ship 10 North of Range 13 East, M. D. M., for 
tile ])urpose of diverting the waters from the channel of the stream 
into the High Line Canal leading thence to the point of pipe line intake. 
This dam will be of proper dimensions and design, provided with ample 
spillway for carrying away excess waters, equipped with all necessary 
and convenient water-Controlling devices and .safety appliances, and to 
be first-class in every respect. 


The canals, ditches, tunnels, flumes and other conduits required to 
collect a daily su])ply of seventy-five million gallons of water from the 
various sources of supply, and to deliver the same to the point of pipe 
line intake, are as follows: 

The natural channels of Alpine Creek. Silver Fork and South Fork 
of American River, and of Pyramid Creek and Slippery Ford Fork are 



to be utilized for conveyins;' the waters of Silver Lake, Twin Lakes, 
Audrain Lake, Echo Lakes and the Medley Lakes, and their tributary 
drain areas, to the headworks of the American Canal, later described. 
These channels have been continuously utilized for this puqiose for 
more than twenty-five years, and the right is a vested one. 

All of these upper American waters, except those of the Echo Lakes, 
flow naturally to the canal intake. The Echo I^akes waters are dis- 
charged into a conduit consisting of a Hume, ditch, tunnel and open 
channel, and are conducted through the western sunmiit of the Sierra 
Nevada range of mountains and discharged into the channel of South 
Fork of American River. These works were originally constructed 
many years ago and have since been ccjutinuously used. 

By the above means all the waters originating above the head of the 
American canal are concentrated in the channel of South Fork of Amer- 
ican River at a point in Section 29 of Townshi]) 11 North of Range 15 
East, M. D. M., where the American diversion dam (to be erected by 
proponents as per Exhibit E) will divert them into the canal. 

The part of the canal of the E\ Dorado Water and Deep travel 
Mining Company, here called the "American canal," embraced in this 
pro])()sition, extends from the point above nanicd to the entrance of a 
tunnel, later described, connecting the American and Cosunuies water- 
.sheds in Section 34 of Township 11 North of Range 13 East, M. 1). .M. 

The length of this canal from end to end as above, inclusive of Humes 
in line, is about 102,960 feet. Of this length about 22,000 feet is made 
up of 37 Humes of varying length. The remainder, about Si.oao feet, 
being regular canal section excavated in earth and stone. 

The canal has been built and in continuous use for more than thirty 
years. It was given an original carrying capacity of about one hundred 
million gallons of water per day. The engineer who made the original 
location and under whose direction it was constructed, had the courage 
of his conviction that he was building for all time ; the result being that 
he put the canal where it should have been ])ut, built it as it shoukl have 
been built, and provided it with ample sand boxes, wa.ste wiers, and 
other neces.sary a])])liances. The good work done has now the .seasoning 
of time, coupled with good maintenance ; and to-day, as nearly as ma\ 
be, it possesses the characteristics and .stability of a natural ehannel. 
Sand boxes, waste wiers. and other protective devices are i)lace(l at 
frequent intervals along the canal line. 

The character of the construction and the natural conditions are 
favorable to an economical enlargement of the canal section and carr)'- 
ing capacity, which can readily be increased to deliver about two lum- 
drcd million gallons of water per day. 

In the line of the canal a number of ravines were encountered, to 
cross which Humes were necessary. These Humes begin anct end on 
substantial stone abutments which were well designed and constructed, 
and are in prime condition. The aggregate length of Humes in the 
canal .section above referred to, is 22.000 feet, of which about 1 1 ,ooO' 
feet are new. having been rebuilt within the ])ast three years. The re- 
mainder is serviceable for a time, but is being rebuilt as occasion 


The rii;lits of way of the canal line are 60 feet in width, being 30 
feet from each side of the center line as located. These were secured 
under act of Congress when the canal was constructed, and have been 
in peaceable possession for nearly fifty years, hence are perfect. The 
canal is to be ]nit into condition by proponents as indicated by Ex- 
hibit K. 

Commencing at a point on the canal line in Section 34 of Township 
II North of Range 13 East, M. D. M., and extending thence through 
the divide between the watersheds of the South Fork of .American River 
and North Fork of Cosumnes River, proponents will construct a tunnel 
for the pur])ose of discharging the waters of the canal into the Sly Park 

The length of this tunnel will ai)i)roximate 2.000 feet. It will be 
provided with suitable masonry entrance and discharge jiortals, and 
will be concrete lined on sides and bottom and overhead where neces- 
sary. The tunnel will be given capacity for its ultimate requirements 
of about two hundred million gallons of water per day, and will be 
designed and con.structed in accordance with apjjroved plans and speci- 
fications, equipped with proper gates and other appliances of safety 
and convenience, and be first-class in every respect. 

The waters from the American watersheds anfl from Sly Park 
reservoir will follow the channels of Sly Park and Camp Creeks to the 
High Line diversion dam (see Exhibit E), where they will be diverted 
into the High Line canal leading thence to the pipe line intake. 

The canal to be utilized ff)r this ])urpose is the old Jones and Furman 
ditch, constructed nearly fifty years ago and since used for the conduct 
of water. This canal originates on Camp Creek in Section 26 of Town- 
ship 10 North of Range 12 East, and extends thence to a point in Sec- 
tion 2 of Township 9 North of Range 11 East, from which ])oint these 
proponents will construct a new canal to a point in Section 19 of the 
same Township and Range, which will be convenient to the p\pe line 
intake and at such an elevation above it as to enable develoj^ment of 
power as stated in the twelfth paragraph of proponents' proposition. 

The canal will be reconstructed by these proponents from intake to 
<lischarge. All hcadworks, flumes, waste wiers, safety devices, con- 
veniences, etc., being supplied and installed in accordance with ap- 
proved i)lans and specifications. The completed canal to have capacity 
to deliver one lumdred million gallons of water per day at the pipe 
line intake. 

EXilllilT C. 
Rights oi- Way. 

In addition to the channel, ditch and canal rights of way referred to 
and described in Exhibit F, to-wit : The channels of Alpine Creek, 
Silver Fork of South Fork of American River, Pyramid Creek, Sli])i)ery 
Ford branch of South Fork of .Vmerican River, South Fork of .\meri- 
can River, Echo Lakes ditch line, .\merican canal, Jones and Furman 



canal, etc., these proponents' proposition embraces the following chan- 
nels and rights of way : 

The channels of Mill or Wolf Creek, Alder Creek and Plum Creek, 
originally tributaries to South Fork of American River hut now tribu- 
tary to the American canal. 

The channel of Camp Crock from Granite I'.asin reservoir site to the 
intake of the Jones and Furman canal in Section 26 of Town.shij) 10 
North of Range 12 East. M. D. M. 

A ditch line connecting the channel of Camp Creek in Section 24 of 
Township 10 North of ivange 13 East, M. 1). M., with the slv Park 
reservoir site. 

A ditch line connecting the North Fork of Cosumnes River in Sec- 
tion 18 of Township <; North of Range 13 East, M. D. Al., with the 
channel of Camp Creek and the Jones and Furman canal. 

A canal line extending from the lUick's Bar damsite along the north 
bank of North Fork of Cosumnes River to a point in Section i<; of 
Township 9 North of Range 11 East, M. D. M., being the point of 
intake for pi])e lines leading thence to the City and County of San 
Francisco. This covers the location of the so-called Low Line canal. 

EXllir.IT 11. 
Description of W.\ti;ksiikds. 

The zone of the watersheds comprises an area of square 
miles. It stretches from Cat Point, about eight miles southeast of 
Placerville, eastward about forty miles to the summit of the high 
Sierras, and embraces the slopes of two spurs of mountains, having a 
width of from ten to si.xteen miles. Its topographical aspect is typically 
Sierran, rising from an elevation of 1500 feet, it culminates in altitudes 
of more than ten thousand feet at the summits of Pyramid Peak, Round 
Top and Mount Tallac and other iiigh mountains included in the area. 

The lower reaches are well wooded with many varieties of conifer, 
admirably adapted to the conservation of moisture ; the upper reaches 
are granitic, broken and glaciated, stripped of soil, clean and cold, 
blanketed with perennial snows. \'ast reservoirs of water thus lie con- 
gealed upon these elevations throughout the year, and yield a con- 
tinuous flow during the season of greatest heat and drouth. 

Only a few spots in this entire territory are susceptible of human 
habitation, the total population at present aggregating not to exceed 
three hundred and fifty persons — less than one to a square mile of the 
tract under consideration. Of these persons nearly all are .settled upon 
fiats which comprise the reservoir sites and would, perforce, remove 
when these spaces become converted to the uses of the city. 

About three-fourths of this area has been withdrawn from settlement 
through being included within the Tahoe Forest Reserve. It is patrolled 
by forest rangers in the emjjlo)' of the Government, whose duty it is to 
prevent trespass and to ])rotect the timber against fires, thereby main- 
taining those conditions of the watershed favorable to the largest con- 
servation of water, to continuance of running streams and their freedom 


from pollution. The precii)itation i.s very copiou.s, the watersheds lying 
for the most part within the lines marking one of the regions of greatest 
rainfall in the Sierra Nevada mountains. By reason of the cool climate 
evaporation is at its minimun>. and the surfaces being largely naked 
rock, there is a maximum runoff : thus the catchment is productive of 
large (|uantities of water seemingly disproportionate with its area. The 
conditions throughout are favorable in the highest degree to great pre- 
cipitation ujKm surfaces where the waters may lie or be held free from 
contamination and from which they ma)' be released in their pure state 
as the needs of the city may vc(|uire. 

EXIlllilT 1. 

A\.\I,^ SKS Ol- \\'.\TKR. 

l'rofes.sor Thomas Trice of San Francisco, to whom was submitted 
for analysis four samjiles of water taken from widely separated portions 
of the watershed, has issued the following certificate: 

■■.\nalytical & Consulting Chemists, 
"309 Commercial St., 
"San Francisco. 

"Xovember 6th, 1905. 
"Analyses of 4 Sam])les of Water for I'.ay Cities Water Company. 






"per Gal. 

per Gal. 

per Gal. 

])er Gal. 

'Calcium Carbonate 



. 405 


"Magnesium Carbonate. . . 





"Sodium Chloride 

... 0.320 




"Potassium Chloride 

... 0.123 

0. 108 

. 274 

0. 125 

■( )rganic Matter 





"Total Residue 

... 1.315 

1 . 002 

"Parts per 

'arts per 

1 'arts per 

1 'arts i)er 









'.Mbuminoid .\mmonia . . . 

. . . 0.039 













"i lardness : 

"Tem])orary as Ca CO3 . . . 









".•\11 of the samples were free from either color or odor, and none 
of them contained any sediment. 

'"The foregoing analyses show these waters to possess a degree of 
inirity which is not ccjualled by that sujiiilied to any large city in the 

(Signed) "TIIOM.VS PR1C1-: & SOX." 




Sc IIEDULK OI' 1 iM I'UOVKMKNTS W'lllCII IkW Citiks VVater Company 

Will Crkatk L'ton Pkopicutils I xcli'iiKd in its l'K()Pf)SiTif)X. 

One: Deepen the cliannel connecting Big and Little Echo Lakes to 
a point on a level with the ])resent outlet of Hig Echo Lake. 

Txvo: Repair existing dam on Hig Echo Lake and replace head- 
gates at the outlet with new gates of snhstantial construction. 

Three: Overhaul, repair and replace Hume now connecting Echo 
Lake outlet with ditch leading to tunnel ; clean out ditch and repair 
portals to tunnel. 

I'oiir: Overhaul Medley Lakes dam and put in new and suhstantial 
outlet gates. 

. I'h'c: Put in new low diversion dam of concrete or masonry con- 
struction across South Eork of American River at head of American 
River canal. 

Six: Replace existing headworks of American canal with new sub- 
stantial structure, inclusive of gates for governing inlet of water to 
canal, and proper provision for waste of excess water. 

Se^i'en: Clean out American canal and so increase the carrying 
capacity thereof through deepening and widening channel by excava- 
tion and raising of berm, as to give it a carrying capacity of not less 
than one hundred million gallons per day. 

Ei}^ht: Inclusive of all improvements to be made by these pro- 
ponents as in this exhibit set forth, to make such provisions as good 
engineering practice prescribes for the delivery of a continuing daily 
supply of seventy-five million gallons of water at the lower end of the 
High Line canal hereinafter described. Said provisions to be made 
either by adding to the capacities of the reservoirs described in the pre- 
ceeding Exhibit C or by otherwise creating additional storage above the 
intake of the High Line canal and by increasing the earth and rock sec- 
tions of the American canal to a carrying capacity of not less than one 
hundred million gallons per day ; repairing such of the existing flumes 
thereon as are in good condition ; and re])lacing such as require re- 
placing, and giving all said flumes a carrying capacity of at least one 
hundred million gallons per day, or alternatively, by a combination of 
increase of storage and of canal carrying capacity as these proponents 
shall elect. 

Nine: lUiild such suitable waste water wier on line of American 
canal adjacent to inlet of tunnel connecting American and Cosumnes 
watersheds, as shall be necessary to dispose of excess water accuniulat- 
ing at that point. 

Ten: r>uild tunnel through divide between American and Cosumnes 
watersheds. Said tunnel to be of full concrete construction with suit- 
able concrete entrance and di.scharge portals ; to have a capacity of two 


hundred million i^allons per day ; and to he provided with all necessarv 
gates for controlling the entrance of water thereto. 

Eleven: Remove buildings, fences, trees, etc., from the site of the 
Sly Park reservoir, and put same in proper sanitary condition for stor- 
ing water for human consum])tion. 

T'^'clve: Construct necessary earth-fill dams with concrete core- 
walls of sufficient heights, to create storage in Sly Park reservoir for 
ten thousand seven hundred million gallons of water. Said dam to be 
provided with proper gates for controlling the discharge from said 
reservoir and proper gates, pipes, etc., for sluicing the same. Also to 
be provided with proper spill-way for discharge of excess water and 
all requisite .safety devices. 

Thirteen: Construct a suitable masonry diversion dam across Camp 
Creek at head of High Line canal, leading thence to the common point 
hereinabove referred to. Said dam to be ecjuipjied with proper sluice 
gates. pii)es. and safety devices and appliances. 

Fourteen: Clean out, enlarge, reconstruct and extend the High 
IJne canal extending from the diversion dam next above referred to; 
building all flumes, tunnels, etc., necessary to said canal line and giving 
the same a carrving capacity of one hundred million gallons of water 
per day. Said canal to be equipi)ed with all necessary headgates, waste 
wiers, etc., and to terminate at a point sufficientl\- above the point 
cho.sen for head works of pipe lines extending thence to the city, to 
enable the development of power as above stated and the discharge of 
the waters into |)ii)e lines extending to the City and County of San 






Compared with that supplied 

Eastern Cities. 




Owing to many complaints reacliins; 
us respecting the quality of the water 
furnished our citizens, we think it nec- 
essary to publish the official analysis of 
the water supplied by the Contra Costa 
Water Company. 

The City Council of the city of Oak- 
land ordered an analysis of the water 
supplied to the citizens by the Contra 
Costa Water Company, and the follow- 
ing are the reports furnished the Coun- 

Oakland, October 1, 1881. 
To Dr. J. R. Bradiuay, Health Officer 
of the City of Oakland — ^SiR: Incom- 
pliance with your request, I have made 
a careful examination of the Oakland 
city water, as furnished by the Contra 
Costa Water Compau*v, and herewith 
enclosed present my wl^jit. 

Respectfully, • 

H. T. Lur.LER, M. D. 

Water taken from the faucet in the 
Health Office, City Hall, derived from 
Lake Chabot, near San Leandro, during 
the time from August 28th to September 
3d, was uniform in appearance, clear, 
showing only a slight opalescence. It 
contained the animalcula3, and was mod- 
erately palatable. It contained the 
animalculiK common to pond and river 
■water in moderate quantity. Chemical 
examination showed that it contained no 
poisonous metals, and only traces of 
Iron. According to this and to the sanitary 
analysis given in the table below, it is to 
be classed as stored upland surface 
water of medium purity. There are 
added, for the sake of comparison, the 
analysis of the water of several other 
cities, aud the overage (juantity of im- 
maturities in raifi, upland surtVioe and 
spring water, as given by Professor E. 



Oakland City Water 

Oakland Rain Water 

Upland Surface Water 

Upland Spring Water 

London Water Suinjly 

Birmingham Water .Supply. . . . 

(Jlasgow Water Supply 

Philadelphia (Schuylkill Rivn) 

Parts ptr 100.000. 


Crganic Carbons 

Organic N t^o- 



o ^ 

^e Ammonia. 

CD £7 

• ^ 

1' r- 

2 p 

■C H, 










































1 .4 









(*) Of the 24 parts solid 2-1 parts were organic in.alter. 



State Assay Office, Safe Deposit Build- 
ing, Room No. 16, S. E. corner Cali- 
fornia and Montgomery streets, San 
Francisco, September 16, 1881. No. 

Analysis of water furnished from Lake 
Chabot, near .San Leandro, by the Con- 
tra Costa Water Company, and taUen 
from faucets in Oakland. Received 
Augu-t 29th from J. R. Bradway, 
M. i).. Health Officer. Total rixed in- 
gredients in 1,000 00 parts, 2.3 8-10 parts, 
or per imperial gallon, 16 66-100 grains, 
consisting of: Carbonate of lime, 7.14.3 
parts in 1,000.00, or 5 grains per gallon; 
carbonate of magnesia, 4.842, or .3 389; 
carbonate of soda, 2. 544 or 1.7S3; sulphate 
of soda. 3.958, or 2. 771; chloride of so- 
dium, 2.913, or 2.039; organic matter, 
2 400, or 1 080. 

The organic matter, on close investi- 
gation, proved to be derived from vege- 
table nitrates, nitrites and ammonia, 
which accompany the decompoeitloo of 
animal matter, could be found in minute 
traces only by applying the most deli- 
cate tests. The water, which has now , 
stood in ' our laboralon/ for eighteei/, 
days, is still tree from odor and color, 
» hich affords a good technical proof of 
its freedom from pollution by animal 
matter. A slight sediment at the bot- 
tom of the vessel in which the water was 
kept, consisted of finely-divided vegeta- 
ble tibre. The lime and magnesia are 
contained in the water in the form of 
bicarbonates, and on boiling or exposure 
to the atmosphere are precipitated as in- 
soluble carbonates. 

In our opinion, the water we have 
analyzed answers all the requirements 
of good, potable water. 

Falkenap & Reese. 



Beukeley, October 1, 1881. ( 
To the Honorable, the. Board of Ifeulth, 

OcikUnul, California : 

I b»g leave to submit the following 
report of the examination of three dif- 
ferent samples of water, taken at differ- 
ent times and places from the city 
water works. The examination was 
made solely t'> ascertain whether the 
water was suitable for domestic pur- 
poses. I shall, in a short time, submit 

a more elaborate report, when I will 
give the results of work now unfinished. 

I have determinined the free am- 
monia, the albuminoid ammonia and the 
nitrates and nitrites. 

Free ammonia, parts in a million: I, 
0.08; n, 0.07; III, trace only. In 100,- 
000, 0.008; 0.007; albuminoid pait-i in a 
million. 0.11, 08. 0.09; ammonia in 
100,000, 0.011, 0.008, 009. 

The amount of nitrates is not large, 
and varies somewhat. I wish to w ith- 
hold the exact amount for a contiriiia- 
toiy test. The above analysis ulaces the 
water amout! the good waters which may 
be used for all domestic purposes. 

Very truly, 

W. B. Rising. 

We have thoroughly examined into 
the matter, and find that the same trou- 
ble exists for indefinite periods at cer- 
tain seasons of the year in the water 
supplied to nearly all the cities and 
towns in the United States and Europe; 
whether such supplies are taken 
from rivers, str.ama, natural lakes, 
ponds, made reserviirs, or even wells. 

The governing boaies of these citieR 
and towns have from time to time ap- 
pointed Commissioners, mostly com- 
posed of expert hydraulic engineers ami 
professors of chemistry to examine wa- 
ters with odors and tastes similar to 
the water supplied Oakland; these 
examinations have embraced the most 
minute detail, aide.l by the micro8:;ope 
and severe chemical tests, and have 
been conducted by such eminent men as 
Professor W. R. Nichols, of the Mas- 
sachusetts Institute of Technology, G. 
Lawtou, Professor of chemistry at Dal- 
housie College, Professor Silliman, 
analytical chemist. Professor Torry, Dr. 
Chilton, Dr. Jacksen, S. Dana 
Hayes, State assayer and chemist 
of Vermont, Professor A. R. Leeds, 
of Stevens Institute of Technology; 
Chas. M. Cressen, M. D., Professor at 
the Chemical Laboratory, Philadelphia; 
Dr. Farquharson, Dr. Carpenter (Gen- 
eral and Comparative Philo.sophy), Prof. 
Bailey, of West Point (a distinguished 
microscopist), and Dr. W. G. Farlow, 
Professor of Botany in Harvard Univer- 

None of these gentlemen consider such 
water deleterious to health, in fact it 



is decided that were water contami- 
nated with injurious elements such as 
sewage, the vegetable matter and ani- 
malcules could not exist, being deprived 
of existence by such poisonous ingredi- 

The following stateme.its on this sub- 
ject are gathered from official sources as 
they appear in the printed reports made 
to the City Councils or other governing 
bodies of the various cities and towns 
enumerated below: 

[Report for year 1877, paye 14.] 
No one will question, that wlieu water 
is impounded in this climate in shallow 
reservoirs, it is very liable to acquire an 
unpleasant taste and odor; by increasing 
the depth of water we cannot wholly 
escape this. 

[Pages 36 and 37.] 
Science has as yet failed to discover 
a remedy for the impurities that so fre- 
quently affect water supplies in this cli- 
mate, or the causes that produce them. 
True, they are attributed to an excess of 
animal or vegetable life, and we are told 
if the proper equilibrium between these 
is disturbed, an ut^fdeasaut taste and 
odor are imparted to the witer. But 
what disturbs this equilibrium? Until 
this is established, no remedy can be 
applied with any hope of success; nor is 
it probable, even thous^h we could trace 
the impurities from their real origin to 
their full development, that we could 
hasten their destruction or even lessen 
their effects. 

[Report cif 1875 and 1876, page 37.] 
Early iu October coirplaints began to 
be maiie at the office of the Water 
Board, that the Cochituato water tasted 
badly and was unfit for use. The taste 
was variously described; some persons 
thought it like cucumbers; others like 
fish oil; still others like dead leaves, 
etc ; but a? a rule, it was spoken of as a 
cucumber taste. On October 2Gth the 
Broi'kline and Chestnut Hill reservoirs 
were visited; but the cucumber taste 
could not be detected in the water con- 
tained in them. Water taken in front of 
the screens of the efflux gate-house of the 
Chestnut Hill reservoir was tasteless, 
but a sample taken from behind them, 
or at the mouth of the outlet pipe, was 

found to have the cucumber taste in a 
slight degree. At that date the taste 
may be said to have been confined to the 
water in the pipes; but oa the next day, 
it was discovered in all parts of the 
Bradlee basin of Chestnut Hill reservoir, 
hiiving spread through that large volume 
of about 500,000,000 gallons of water iu 
one night apparently. 

Prof. VVm. R. Nichols, of the Massa- 
chusetts Institute of Technology, was 
requested to make thorough investiga- 
tions to ascertain the cause of the 
trouble; that its recurrence might be 
jirevented if possible, and he engaged 
Mr. Edward Burgess, Secretary of the 
Boston Society of Natural History, and 
Dr. VV. G. FiirloH', A-sistant Professor 
of Botany in the Harvard University, to 
aid him. 

These gentleman have made a very 
complete study of the matter, but are 
unable to assign any cause for the taste. 

Similar trouble existed in the year 
1881, and again is now so bad (1883) 
that drinking water is peddled from 
door to door in carts. 

[Report of 1877, page 9.] 
Many cities jhave suffered from lack of 
water, while we have had enough and to 
spare. The annoyance on account of the 
quality wa^of short duration, and shared 
in common with most towns. It is, of 
course, impossible to form a perfectly 
just idea of the amount of the vegetable 
growth in the reservoir. This vegetable 
matter, when alive and scattered through 
the water, gives scarcely any noticeable 
taste or odor to the water, but in its 
decay becomes olfensive, and when the 
water is delivered in the city, it is un- 
palatable and sometimes possessed of an 
unpleasant odor. In the summer of 1875 
I found a copious growth of mi .roscopic 
plant.i, an alga of the hostoc family. The 
present year I have examined the water 
constantly, and although there has been, 
until December 1st, more or less of a 
green scum in the water, sometimes, 
indeed, quite abundant, I have found 
only one or two individual plants of the 
kind that was so abundant last year. 
The mass of the green matter this year 
is of an entirely different plant, 
and in order that there might be 
no doubt in the matter I re- 
([uested Dr. W. G. Farlow, Professor of 
Botany iu Harvard University, to iden- 

tify it. He pronounced it to be clathro- 
ci/alis (leuijinom. Having my attention 
called to the matter, 1 have observed the 
same plant abundantly the present year, 
in other ponds and reservoirs. With 
reference to the recurrence of the growth 
I may say that all ponds are liable to 
more or less of this growth of micro- 
scopic plants, whether they are natural 
or artificial. A case came under my ob- 
servation this summer, where a pond 
which has been used for years, witiiout 
complaint, became suddenly filled with a 
growth very similar, and the accumulation 
of the decaying vegetable matter on the 
surface, became extremely offensive. I 
am inclined to think that even if filtra- 
tion were performed at the reservoir, it 
would be doubtful if all cause of com- 
plaint, on the part of the consumer, 
would be avoided in the city. 

[Report of the Water Works Associa- 
tion, held at Buffalo, 1883, pages 
26 27.] 

Mr. Ellis — The filter in question which 
Mr. C'roes refers to at Spriiigtield, is a 
thing of the past. Our filter is different 
from anything that has been described 
here to-day. We have a reservoir of 
about four bundled and iforfcy-five acreei 
holding approximately two billion gallons 
of water, more than we could use the 
whole year if we did not have rain. The 
consetjuence is, it i." a stagnttit pool. Its 
average depth is perhaps twelve or four- 
teen feet, and at its deepest point is 
some thirty feet. We are troubled with 
vegetable growth. It was to prevent 
this minute growth, which decays and 
impregnates the water and gives it an 
offensive odor, that our present filter 
was put in. When the filter w-as con- 
structed, and the four acres of tilter-bed 
was full, it wan as shallow in its average 
as the pond itself, and the consequence 
was, that even if it did lose some of its 
vegetable growth above the lilter, it 
would grow below faster than it did 
before, and we still had bad water in 
the pipes. The best plan we have found 
80 far (as this vegetable growth seems to 
be diffused on the surface, and rarely 
more than four feet below the top) is, by 
drawing our water below that ilepth, 
thus getting rid of all the live growth, 
but when it comes to decay, which 
causes this offen?ive odor to the water, 
it fails to rid us of I hat. If there is any- 
one here who can tell us how to dispose 
of this vegetable growth in water, I 

would like to hear from him. We are 
satisfied that the water is all right, and 
we do not have any trouble with it, until 
the temperature rises above sixty, and 
when the temperature falls below that, 
it is all right again. Our water to-day 
is all right, and perha)>a by the middle 
of June or first of July it will be far 
from satisfactory, owing to the vegetable 
growrti which passes into the pipes. We 
have made some experiments the past 
year, with saiid-tilters, to see what effect 
that would have, and got very good 
water in the trial basin, pumping out 
twice in twenty-four hours the water 
that passed through the sand. We kept 
out so much as was alive of this vege- 
table growth, but that which was dead 
we could not avoid. The point with us 
is to prevent its formation. 

Mr. Cameron — Did it affect the health 
of the city ? 

Mr. Ellis — As far as the records of the 
physicians show, it did not. 

Mr. Cameron— Why do you wish to 
get rid of it ? 

Mr. Ellis — It is oflfeusive to the nose, 
is the main reason. 

[The following extract was taken from a 
Chicago paper of November, 1883.] 
The water is declared so impure that 
much sickness is attributed to the sew- 
erage matter contained in it, and it is 
proposed to extend the crib two miles 
further into the lake. 

[Report dated April Ist, 1876.] 
Mr. Frank Doherty, .Superintendent, 
on pages 42, 43, 44, 4.5, remarks:— When 
the subject is fairly considered, this 
water must be admitted to be more pure 
and healthy than that procured from the 
wells and even from filtered cisterns 
also. False impressions are still held by 
numbers of our citixeus regarding the 
comparative purity of the water fur- 
nished by our works and that obtained 
from filtered rain water and from wells, 
who have not given the subject sufficient 
thought, or tliey may, perhaps, have 
been deluded into the belief that because 
the water from the wells is clear to the 
sight and sweet to tlie taste, that there- 
fore it must be pure. For these or other 
reasons they do not become consumers of 
the works, but are content with water 


obtained from wells, situated in close 
proximity to the many cess-pools, drains 
and sinks of the crowded city, it is but 
natural that tliis water should be very 
bad, possibly so that, the senses of smell 
and taste might detect it, but were you 
to continue pumping, this smell and 
taste would disappear, and you would 
soon draw water so pleasant to the taste 
as to be pronounced sweet, as sure an 
indication of sewage as was the first of 
taste and smell and far more dangerous 
because the first would be discarded at 
once, while the last would-be welcomed 
as a luxury. Apply this theory to the 
water supplied from our works, and if 
from tlieir location, there was a possi- 
bility of sewage entering in exceedingly 
small quantities, the amount of pure 
water diluting it is vastly so much 
greater as to leave it far purer than the 
well waters of the city, and should he 
considered a much safer beverage for use, 
in that the possibility of its contami- 
nation is so remote, while the chances 
that the well water of the city is polluted 
is such an almost certainty. 

[Report dated Deoe»^ber .SIst', 1882.] 
Pages 105 and 106 quoting from the 
San'ilnrji Engineer: The question of sup- 
ply of water to our large cities, including 
their suburban towns, is becoming more 
and more serious every day, and among 
these a lavish use of water is the most 
common, and the one whose absence is 
most severely felt. Most people cannot be 
made to understand that water in the 
house to be used at all, is io reality, an 
expensive luxury, and not only so, but 
that it is a difficult one to provide on a 
large scale. 

The question is almost appalling in its 
magnitude, and in the seriousness of the 
consideration of the comfort and even 
the existence of the dwellers in great 
cities, which are involved in the procur- 
ing of a sufficient supply of water for 
their use. 

[Report of 1877-78, page 79.] 
Extracts from report of Mr. (ienrge 
Lawson, Professor of Chemistry, Dal- 
house College. 

Having visited with you in September, 
1878, the sources of water supply to the 

city of Halifax, with a view of ascer- 
taining, if possible, the cause or causes 
of impurity; I heg now to state some of 
the observations then made : The water 
belongs to the class of soft waters, such 
as are collected in districts where there 
are no chalk or limestone strata or other 
rocks, capable of yielding soluble sub- 
stances; iu comparing the Halifax water 
with that of similar waters elsewhere, 
we find that the average solid matter of 
six such waters, viz: those of Plymouth, 
Davenport, Glasgow, Aberdeen, Perth 
and Manchester, amounts to grains 
3.775 per gallon. The water of Long 
Lake corresponds very nearly with this, 
being ,3.840. But the lower Chain Lake 
sample, shows an amount of solid residue 
(5. 120 grains in excess of the water of 
any of the places named.). 

it is obvious, that the excess of im- 
purity is taken up by the water in its 
course from Long Lake through the 
Chain Lakes to the city inlet. It may 
be added that a few specimens of freib 
water sponge (spongilla) whose decay, 
gives a very oflFensive odor to the water, 
were found in the upper Chaio Lake, 
but neither there, nor in the other lakes, 
nfore any of the illauts found, wliich are 
commonly known to render water nox- 
ious. In Spruce Hill Lake, the surface 
of the water was in many ulaces, 
especially near the shore, of a brilliant 
green color, from the growth of a micro- 
scopic alga, called Tneliorinus Flon-aquce, 
which has been observed to give a green 
color to the water in the Grand Canal 
Dock at Dublin, and have been observed 
also in Scotland. France, Wales, Ger- 
many and Finland. It is not known to be 
injurious, but is regarded as an indication 
of water being stagnant or containing 
organic matter. 

[Report of Dec. 29th, 1876, page 9.] 
At the time of making the last annual 
report the qualify of the water supplied 
to the city had so deteriorated from 
some cause which has never been satis- 
isfactorily explained, as to cause 
great anxiety and inconvenience 
throughout the city. The abnor- 
mal condition of the water, the 
peculiar "fish-like" taste, and the other 
unpleasant qualities, and the means re- 
sorted to for remedying the difficulty are 
fully detailed in the last report; the 


water coQtiuueil in this unpalatable cou- 
dition until the thirtieth day of March 
last, when it was discovered that the bad 
taste and odor had suddenly and en- 
tirely disappeared; the duration of the 
trouble was therefore a little more than 
live months, during which period 
neither the moat careful microscopic ex- 
amination nor cnemical analysis, by 
skillful experts, revealed the presence of 
any disturbing or noxious elements in 
the water, or gave any clew to the cause 
of this deterioration, nor is it certain 
that any of the means resorted to for the 
purpose of mitigating or removing the 
evil had any effect whatever. 

Many persons are confident that the 
dead body of some animal decaying in 
the pond is the cause of the bad taste. 
I am convinced that this solution of the 
problem is out of the question. Re- 
peated chemical examination of the 
water could hardly have failed to detect 
an abnormal amount of ammonia and 
nitrogenized animal matter, if such were 
the case. 

[Report of 1875, pages 18, 19, 20and21.] 
It is well known that New Haven, 
New Britain, Westtield, South Hadley, 
Boston and other pljces, have suffered 
from bad water the past season. The 
report of Prof. Silliman on the Norwich 
Water Works, in 1873, says that the 
most general statement was that the 
water had a ""' odor or Havor. 
At Hartford and New Haven the same 
difficulty has been experienced. In the 
latter city the trouble in 18G4 was de- 
scribed as a Hshy odor and taste, which 
returned in 1865 in a more oflensive 
form, and again in later y.ars. The 
Ridgewood water, which supplies Brook- 
lyn N Y., was affected with the same 
p"eculiarity of taste in 1802, so that many 
abandoned its use, and the fishy odor 
was also present. The water supply ot 
Winsted, Conn., took on the same con- 
dition in 1802. Burlington, Vt., which 
is supplied by pumping trom Lake dam- 
plain, sufTered from poor water in 18/0, 
showing that the germs of the evil, 
whatever they are, may exist in very 
lar^e bodies of water. The report of the 
Albany Water Board for ISUo speaks of 
two distinct causes affecting the Albany 
reservoirs at different periods in past 
years, the one giving to the water the 
taste aud odor of fish, the other impart- 
ing to it a musty odor and taste. 
The reservoirs supplying Williams- 

burg, in this State, aud uuiuei- 
ous others, have repeatedly changed 
in quality, to a noticeable extent. The 
waters of the mountain ponds in Otis 
aud that section of the State, are well- 
known by those living near them, to 
assume an altered condition in some 
years which is spoken of as "foment- 
iuB " In a report submitted to the Cro- 
ton Board in August, 1859, Profeasor 
Torrey says, from his examinatiou, ^ to- 
gether with the researches of Dr. Chil- 
ton: I think we are warranted in con- 
cluding that the recent offensive condi- 
tion of the Croton water was owing to a 
rapid and abundanttrrowth of microscopic 
conferva-like plant, which abounds iii a 
volatile, odorous principle soluble to 
some extent in water. I have not yet 
satisfied myself as to the origin of these 
little lilaments, whether they are entire 
plants, or once constituted a part of a 
more complex alg;e. They are more 
minute than auy true conferva known to 
me, being only 2,500th to 2,()00th of 
an inch in diameter, and from a oOth 
to a 20th of an inch long. The follow- 
ing, from reports of water boards, show 
what is positively known upon the sub- 
ject: . i 

Ist. The impurities have made their 
appearance in the spring, in the sum- 
mer, and in the autumn. 

2nd. They have appeared in reser- 
voirs supplied from creeks aud from 

3rd They have also appeared in res- 
ervoirs supplied from lakes sometimes 
small and shallow, and sometimes large 
and of great depth. ^ ^ ■ 

4th. Tht-y have appeared in October, 
and continued to February, notwith 
standing the severity of a northern win- 

.-)th In some instances the impurities 
have disappeared within a short time 
after their discovi-ry, in others they 
have continued for months. 

6th The waters of rivers and wells 
have 'also been affected. When the 
offensive odor and taste appeared in 
Cochituate lake, they were alKO found 
in Round pond, which supplied Haver- 
hill; in Jamaica pond, the waters of 
which are usually exceedingly pure, and 
in several wells near the lake, and al.o 
in Chicopee river. 

7th The impurities, whatever thek 
origin, are not deleterious to h«allh. 


[Report dated March 8, 18()'2, ou pages 
19, 20.] 

Professor B. Silliman, Jr., Ana- 
lytical Che'iiist, says: If proper 
care is taken in the construction of 
reservoirs, and in cleiniui; up the 
ground which they are to cover, the 
effect of storiug the water will be to 
improve it in every particular, as com- 
pared with the waters of tlie stream. 
In such a favorable soil much confer- 
void growth lias developed itself 
with the progress of the seasou, and by 
the last of June some of these plants, ex- 
isting iu great iiuml ers, have reached 
their limit and died, producing a decom- 
position and tlie discrimination of many 
filaments c^f vegetable growth thrcmgh 
the water. This trouble has reached its 
hight by the middle of July, and then 
rapidly disappeared. 

The chief cause of difference between 
spring water and river water is, that the 
former is the result of nature's process 
of filtration through the soil, and the 
porous layers on the surface, while the 
river water represents the rains plus the 
wash of the surface. The s])rlug No. 3 
of this report was ij/erfi ctly brilliant, 
colorless and brisk, but the process of 
filtration had been carried too far; the 
organic matter was aiinost all removed, 
and some new inorganic elements added, 
which render the water unsafe for use 
with lead. 

[Report dated March 1, 1872, pages 19 
and 20.] 

The Joint Special Committee ap- 
pointed by your honorable body, with 
power to examine into, and take such 
measures as they may deem necessary, 
to remedy the existing impurities iu the 
water supply, have had the matter un- 
der consideration and beg leave to re- 

Your committee have sought informa- 
tion from every source, and by every 
means, and desiring to co-operate with 
the Board of Water Commissioners, they 
have rendered the committee important 
aid in their investigations. The opin- 
ions of scientific men in our midst have 
been had, besides an analysis of the wa- 
ter, both from the reservoir aud hy- 
drants, by Professor C. T. Jackson, of 
Boston, an eminent chemist and State 
Assayer of Massachusetts. • Your com- 
mittee, in the exercise of their own 
judgment, aided by the opinion of sev- 

eral citizens whose judgment, from their 
intelligence, aided by observation, en- 
titled them to respect, started with the 
theory of an organic growth upon the 
inner surface of the pi])es. known in the 
language of science as crotonic coo/crrre, 
which is a vegetable growth chiefly, 
which growth is developed and matured 
by a certain degree of high temperature, 
when it beconus disengaged, and by the 
current of the water in the mains is 
washed into the extremities aud "dead 
ends" of the service pipes, where it pre- 
cipitates, decomposes, becomes staunaiit, 
and thus contaminates the water in the 
vicinity of the impurity. The analysis 
by Dr. Jackson, which is herewith sub- 
mitted, corroborates the theory advanced 
at the outset by the committee. The 
analysis shows but a small per cent, of 
organic matter, none of it being animal. 


[Report dated December 31, 1876, page 6 ] 
Except for a brief period in the heat 
of summer, when the water in one of 
the ponds ha l an unpleasant taste and 
smell, it has been generally acceptable 
to)customei8 Ay public water supply 
drawn from ))onds or rivers, has to grow 
gradually in favor with any community. 
Accustomed to sparkling well water, the 
pond (sater at first seems Hat aud in- 
sipid, but with use this soon wears 
awav, and the most prejudiced would 
hardly be willing to return to the old 
wells, especially after a knowledge of 
tile fact, that in many localities, the 
clear well water often contains the germs 
of disease, the existence of which, the 
palate gives no indication. 
[Reportdated December 31, 1877, page 4.] 
During the months of June, July, 
August and September, the water in the 
Birch Pond reservoir, was again ren- 
dered unpalatable by the peculiar taste 
imparted to it, by what is known as 
microscopic vegetable growth. This 
minute vegetalile growth, which at 
times, affects so unfavorably the water 
in our storage basins, is not peculiar to 
this locality. The reports received at 
this office in exchange for our own, make 
frequent mention of the appearance in 
the water sources in other towns and 
cities, of this cause of contamination. 
No natural water which is exposed to 
the air, whether in pond or river, is 
neverentirely free from vegetable growth. 


Light and certain degrees of tempera- 
ture and Btillness are requisite for the 
normal growth of these algae, and the 
decay often takes place in the mains and 
service Jpipes; it will not infrequently 
happen, that the water in a reservoir 
or pond will have almost uo taste, while 
the water as delivered to customers will 
have a decided taste. 

[Report of 1877, pages 3 and 4 ] 
The water has not been submitted to 
a chemical analysis; this was not thought 
necessary, as its superior quality cannot 
be questioned. Its softness has already 
been tested in the best, most reliable 
and satisfactory manner, by its use iu 
the laundries attached to the numerous 
hotels. There is no point iu the drain- 
age area from which any deleterious 
organic matter flows into the stream. 
Chemically pure water is not attainable 
from natural sources; rain water 
takes up impurities in its passage 
through the atmosphere, springs, 
wells, brooks, rivers, and lakes, 
all contain mineral salts or organic im- 
purities, absorbed from the drainage 
area. While most of Ijhese are disoovi 
ered and their amounts determined by 
analysis, to obtain the best results a 
noted chemist has stated that nothing 
e.xcels a critical examination of the drain- 
age of a given source, for by a knowl- 
edge of the geology, topography, physi- 
cal and commercial features of a water- 
shed, the quality of the water obtained 
from it is best determined. The danger 
of using water obtained from wells, in 
thickly populated districts, is but 
slightly appreciated, particularly where 
it is employed for culinary or drinking 
purposes. The open sand andgravel upon 
which the town of Long Branch is built, 
allows impure matter thrnwn upon the 
surface, or deponited in pits to percolate 
through into the water-bearing strata, 
and although the water obtained from 
the wells may have no color, or odor, 
still it often contains highly objection- 
able and sometimes poisonous matter. 

[Report of 1882, Page 7.] 
The result of examinations of the dif- 
ferent kinds of water used by the citi- 
zens of Lambertville show: First — 
That the well waters are not of a kind 
to be commended for drinking aid cul- 

inary purposes. They are generally con- 
taminated with surface drainage to a 
greaetr or less extent; some of them are 
□ot by any means economical where soap 
is used, being too hard for i;eueral do- 
mestic use. Second — That the water of 
Island creek, though soft, is in the late 
summer and early fall months, apt to 
be contaminated with the product of 
decaying vegetable matter. 

[Report of 1875, Page 34.] 
No water was pumped from the Dud- 
low lane well during a considerable por- 
tion of this year, in consequence of pol- 
lution by organic matter from the neigh- 
boring cesspools. 

[Report of 1872, Page 29.] 
To the decomposition of spontaneous 
growths within the pipes and in the 
basin is attributed much of the peculiar 
fishy odors that have proved so objec- 
tionable in the waters Mowing from 
many of the newly constructed storing 
basins. Analysis of waters such as emit 
these fishy or cucumber odors, usually 
detect large perceo^gcs of vegetable oils 
and wax, and indicate a preponderance 
of vegetable over the due proportion of 
animal organisms. 

[Report of 1873. Page 18.] 

S. Dana Hayes, State Assayer and 
Chemist, says: There are no nitrates, 
ammonia, nor sewage in either of these 
samples; No. 3 should be selected as the 
best. It has a slightly yellowish tint, 
caused by purely vegetable coloring 
matter, like that dissolved from drieil 
leaves by runnintr water. No. 1 
contains less organic (vegetable) mat- 
ter, and possessing rather better 
keeping qualities than No. 2, is 
the next best water, although^ the 
diflFerence between No. 1 and No. 2 
is practically of very little consequence; 
and either of them is a much safer and 
purer water than that from wells sunk 
in the vicinity of dwelling-houses, sta- 
bles, or other common sources of gradu- 
ally increasing contamination. 

The average amount of impurity in up- 
wards of seventy-five samples of well 
water, as given in published reports in the 
hands of your Committee, was upwards 
of forty grains to the gallon, while 


twenty-five analyses of waters fur- 
nished by public works to dif- 
fercut cities and towns in this country 
give an average of over six grains of solid 
matter to the gallon. 

[Report dated November .SO, 1881. 
Poges 20, 21, 22.] 
Professor A. R. Leeds, of Stevens In- 
stitute, of Technology, says: The first 
analysis was from water drawn on June 
7th. It will be seen that the water 
drawn at that time was in good condi- 
tion. It then began to deteriorate, and 
by the 20th of the same month, was 
open to some complaints, the amount of 
albuminoid ammonia having risen to .03 
parts in 100,000, which is twice the 
amount permissible iu good drinUing 
water. The conclusion drawn from the 
analysis was that while ihe Passaic 
water was below the standard of unex- 
ceptional drinking water, it was but lit- 
tle, if at all, inferior to the Croton. 

[Report dated December 27, 1877. 
Page 19.] 

During a few weei(s in the summer the 
water had an unpleasant taste, owing, in 
a great measure, to the decaying vegeta- 
ble matter in in the storing reservoir. 

[Report dated September, 1880. Page 28.] 

As this report may fall into the hands 
of some who are not acquainted with the 
location of your supply, I may be per- 
mitted to say that the water is taken 
from a pond of some 225 acres 
area, which was made by rais- 
ing a natural pond. While in 
some places the water is shallow, it is 
generally at least 12 to 15 feet deep, and 
in some places as much as 60 feet deep. 
The lake was filled in 1872, and, I un- 
derstand, until the present year has 
given no trouble. In the latter part of 
October the disagreeable odor began to 
be noticed, and at the time of my visit, 
December 20th, the odor was very 
marked throughout the pond. It was 
not possible to distinguish any difference 
between the surface water aud that 
taken from a depth of 45 feet. 

It is unfortunate that while the odor 
(with the accompanying somewhat un- 
pleasant taste) is well recognized as a 
trouble to which stored surface water is 
liable, we do not as yet know the cause. 

nor do we know of any means by which 
the trouble can bo prevented. 

In the case of your lake, however, we 
have not to deal with a new reservoir, 
but with one which has been filled for 
seven years, and even the samples taken 
from the buttom at depths of 25 and 40 
feet, show very little color, and con- 
tained only a very small amount of or- 
ganic matter. Some persons have 
thought that the <'.ead body of some ani- 
mal decaying in the pond might cause 
the odor, but I am very certain that no 
such effect could be in this way pro- 
duced without our being able by chemi- 
cal examination to detect iu the water 
some of the other products of decay. 
Other theories still have been suggested, 
but I thmk we must honestly confess 
our ignorance of the real cause. Judg- 
ing from the experience in other locali- 
ties, I should expect but little improve- 
ment in the lake until spring, especially 
now that the surface is frozen over. 
There is no evidence, as far as I am 
aware, that the water is at all unwhole- 
some, and it is quite likely that it may 
qe years before there is a recurrence of 
the difficulty. 

I Ci.nnot help' feeling that your trouble 
is similar in its nature to that which has 
twice affected the Boston water supply. 

[Report of the year 1874, page 31. Re- 
port of Chas. M. Cres.son, M. D., 
dated March 3, 1875, from Laboratory, 

That the extreme variations in the 
amount of organic matter in these sam- 
ples amount to but )G.2 per cent,, while 
that of the .lewage varies to the amount 
of 220 per cent., and the water contain- 
ing the greatest amount of organic mat- 
ter really has in it but traces of sewage. 
In the whole range of chemical analysis 
there is no determination which surpasses 
that of ammonia in point of delicacy. 
The Wessler test is capable of indicating 
one part ammonia in 200,000,000 parts of 

The cities and towns draining into the 
river Schuylkill above Fairmont dam, 
number 17, with a population of 90,000. 
The pollution of the Schuylkill river has 
been increased to such an extent as 
occasionally to class the water as un- 
wholesome, prompt measures should 
therefore be taken to relieve it of sewage 
containing faecal and decaying animal 


[Report dated October 2.1, 1877, 
Page 17.] 

Water though theoretically made up 
of only two elements without perceptible 
taste, color or smell, is never supplied 
by nature, chemically pure, analysis 
prove that it always contains, iu a greater 
or less decree, foreign matter (jathered 
from many sources. The only true 
methoil of furnishing pure water is to 
maintain the purity of the source of sup- 
ply, by diverting from it as much 
as possible, all sewage, manufac- 
turing refuse, etc. Humbar, Kirkwood, 
and other hydraulic authorities, all unite 
in saying that to be cleansed of its im- 
purities, water should not pass through 
the filter beds at a more rapid rate of 
descent than six inches per hour, or 
twelve feet per day, and in this simple 
fact lies the expensive feature of the sys- 
tem, for to purify one million gallons of 
water per day, requires, at the above 
rate, i;<,.')00 sijnare feet of filtering area. 

It would seem best to first restore the 
purity of the .Schuvlkill river, by divert- 
ing from it the refuse matter poured into 
the river by the sewers between Flat 
Rock and Fairmont dams. This done, a 
storage capacity equal to several weeks 
supply would enable us to get rid of 
much of the remaining impurities by sub- 
sidence, and o.xydation by exposure to 
the air. 

[Report dated January Ist, 1875, page 7.] 
There has been no time during the 
past year when water in the Genesee 
river has been plentiful in supply, when 
it has not been so muddy as to be unfit 
for any use, without settling, except for 
extinguishment of fires, sprinkling 
streets, lawns or gardens, and, on the 
other hand, when it has been clear, it 
has been in such scant supply as so com- 
pel the use of the steam pumping set. 
Such has been the actual continuous ex- 
perience, that whenever the water was 
not muddy there was not enough to be 
had. As to its hardness, the testimony 
has come from every quarter that it 
was on that account unavailable, and its 
use for either domestic or manufacturing 
purposes has been everywhere repudi- 
ated, except where none other could be 

[Report of 1879, pace 23 ] 
In the early part of Ju'y, 1878, a 
peculiar reddish appearance was ob- 
served in the water of Hemlock lake, 
about two miles up from the outlet. 
It stenied to be due to something com- 
ing from the bottom, which spread near 
and on the surface of the water, and 
was held in suspense, a strong wind 
from the south prevailed, which drove 
this matter helil in suspense to the 
shore at the lower end of the lake, and 
the action of the hot sun upon it, 
seemed to decompose it very soon, when 
it gave off a very strong, fish-like 
o<lor, identifying it with the odor 
which caused so much trouble in the 
autumn of 1876. 

[Report of February 28, 1877, on pages 
15, IG and 17 ] 

In Dr. Farquharson's report on the 
quality of water, he cays: That of tha 
seven specimens of water examined, only 
one, Xo. 4, was found to be bad or unfit 
for use as drinkvog water; this water, 
though v<^ry clear,' bright and sparkling 
(from aeration), destitute of odor, and 
possessed of no disagreeable taste, yet 
gave decided evidence of being largely 
charged with chlorides, sulphateii, ara- 
moniacal sult.-s and orL'anic matter. 

The six other waters were very much 
alike, animalcula? «ere found iu every 
instance. On this subject Dr. Carpen- 
ter [General and Comparative Physiol- 
ogy,] says: It must not be supposed, 
however, that these aoimalcuhes, as the 
name "infusory," sometimes given thera, 
would seem to imply, are confined to 
iufiisions of organic matter, for, al- 
though they mostly abound in such, 
there is no collection of water, fresh, 
salt or stagnant, in which they are not 
present. Again, Professor Bailey, of 
West Point, a distinguished microsco- 
pist, who, after classifyice and naming 
the several animalcul.'e, says: You will 
see by the above report that living hard 
and soft-shelled polygastric infusoria are 
present in all these waters, and so far 
the evidence is in Javor of their salu- 
brity, for if they were not present, it 
would necessarily be in consequence of 
something injurious to animal life being 
present in the water. Some of the 
species found are such as inhabit the 


purest lakes and streams, and many of 
them would be instantly destroyed in 
putrescent waters. 

[Report of 1877, Pages 23 and 24.] 

The unacceptable condition of the 
water, as noted in former reports, contin- 
ues to seriously militate against financia 
success. It is always difficult to impose 
reason, although based upon fact and 
logic, against custom, however unjustifi- 
able, or to resist the denp-seated prejudice 
which leads to the erroneous belief that 
our wells and cisterns furnish purer and 
more healthful water than the Maumee 
river; neither is it so very wonderful 
that persons, uninformed in such mat- 
ters, continue to regard limpidity as the 
standard of purity, in contradistinction 
to the various inorganic constituents 
which, although practically harmless in 
effect, render water turbid and un- 
sightly. On the other hand, the forego- 
ing objections are frequently resorted to 
as pretexts to avoid payment for water 
actually used. 

Rain water, as it falls from the clouds 
in sparsely settled districts, is compara- 
tively puie and unobjectionable; but in 
large manufacturing districts and cities, 
is liable to beseriously contaminated with 
poisonous gases from the atmosphere, 
and also with various organic impurities 
washed from the roofs of buildings. 
Hence its great tendency to become 
putrid and offensive; when allowed to 
remain quiet, even for a short time, in 
covered cisterns. Well waters, especi- 

ally in populous districts, have been so 
often and universally condemned as to- 
tally unfit for domestic use, that it 
would seem almost needless to again 
advert to them. No one, I think, 
who is in any manner familiar 
with the sanitary and chemical litera- 
ture on the subject, will attempt to 
claim that such waters, however clear 
and sparkling, are potable or otherwise 
suitable for culinary purposes. Without 
a known exception, they are found by 
analysis to contain a superabundance of 
chloride of sodium (or common salt) 
which is generally taken as indubitable 
evidence of dangerous contamination 
from sewerage, public or private, and 
from house, stable, privy, and other 
poisonous drainage. 

[Report of 1877, page Gl.] 
We must call the attention of Council 
to the efl'ects as developed in Dr. Wolfe's 
report of the sewerage of the northern 
slope of the city, which finds its way 
into the Brandywine; also, the drainage 
from the Wilmington and Brandywine 
Cemetery, as commented upon by Dr. 
Bush in his report; these are matters 
for the serious consideration of Council 
and must be met in the near future ; 
if the city continues to grow in that 
direction, the sewerage must increase, 
and if bodies are interred in the ceme- 
tery they must decay, and water polluted 
more or less, will finds its way into our 
reservoirs for use as long as the pump- 
house remains where it is. 


Preserve for Future Reference 

Municipal Ownership 

O F 

Water and Available 
Sources of Supply 
for Oakland, 

Report of Citizens' Committee 

JANUARY lo, 1903 

R. H. Chamberlain 
John L. Howard 
Warren Olney 
Sol Kahn 
James P. Taylor 

— Committee 

<=B^^to Oakland Enquirer -Si^(^ 


The Mayor of Oakland, Mr. Anson Barstow, in the month of 
April, 1902, appointed a committee, consisting of R. H. Chamber- 
lain, John L. Howard, Sol Kahn, James P. Taylor and Warren 01- 
ney, to investigate and report upon "Municipal Ownership of Water 
and Available Sources of Supply." The Committee accepted the 
appointment and began the work of investigation. It soon found 
that it would be necessary to have some money to pay for services 
of engineers, and asked the Mayor and Council to appropriate a 
sum sufficient for that purpose. Th s was refused, and when it 
was found that the Committee was really in earnest to ascertain 
whether or not a water supply could be found independent of the 
Contra Costa Water Company, their appointment was revoked. 
Thereupon a petition, signed by more than fifteen hundred citizens, 
was presented to the Committee, asking it to continue its work, and 
about forty-three hundred dollars was raised to pay expenses. The 
Copimittee acceded to the request, and after patient .and careful 
examination made a report. The Committee that raised the neces- 
sary funds for expenses herewith presents to the people of Oakland 
that report and begs a careful reading of it. It seems to this Com- 
mittee that this report po'.nt^ the way to municipal owner.-hip of a 
water supply, and freeing the city from the domination of the 
Contra Costa Water Company. 

Oakland, January 9th, 1903. 
To THE Citizens of Oakland: — 

The undersigned, complying with a request signed by fifteen 
hundred or more citizens, asking us to make an "investigation con- 
cerning the Municipal Ownership of Water and Available Sources 
of Supply," have made a careful investigation of these subjects, and 
respectfully submit the following report: 

We make acknowledgment of the financial aid rendered by 
the contributors to a fund placed at our disposal, which has enabled 
us to obtain engineering talent of a high order, without which 
assistance our labors and the conclusions to which they might lead 
would have had little value as a guide for the action of our people. 

This report is not the place for a general discussion of the mu- 
nicipal ownership and operation of public utilities, nor does the duty 
assigned to this committee call for extended argument. On the 
broad subject probably there would be found, among the members 
of the Committee, as much difference of opinion as exists among 
thinking men who have considered this matter; but upon one 
POINT THIS Committee is agreed — that under existing condi- 
tions THE City of Oakland should own and distribute the 
water supply to its citizens. 

As pertaining to this particular utility, the following facts ap- 
pear : 

Of the one hundred and thirty-seven cities in the United States 
each having a population of 30,000 or more, one hundred and one 
own their Water Works, while thirty-six do not. Fiftv-six 
cities as large, or larger, in population than Oakland, including Oak- 
land itself, only ten do not own their water supply. Of the thirty 
largest cities, having populations ranging from 108,000 upward 
only two — San Francisco and New Orleans — do not own their water 
supply systems, and the latter city has already committed itself to 
the acquisition of a municipally owned supply. Several cities are 
added every year to the list of those which have acquired Municipal 
Water Works; while very few, if any, instances can be cited where 
cities, having acquired a municipally owned supply, have turned 
the business over to private parties. 


The protection of the Public Health is a consideration of the 
highest importanoe, and we believe that this will be most effective- 
ly promoted by the Municipal Ownership of Water Supply ; regula- 
tions to insure freedom from pollution can generally be more strictly 
enforced under these conditions, and a city will certainly be found 
more ready to incur expense for filtration and for other measures 
necessary to promote the purity of its water than a private corpora- 

The operation of a Water Worics plant, unlike many other en- 
terprises involving a large investment of capital is quite simple, 
and does not require a numerous operating force or a largenumber of 
employees in any department. A superintending engineer of scien- 


tific attainments and good executive ability, can easily and with a 
small force, do all the work that is necessary to supply the inhab- 
itants of Oakland with water, if that water and a good distributing 
system is owned by the city. 

Financial considerations also appear, on the whole, to favor 
Municipal Ownership of Water. Mr. Bird S. Coler, late Comp- 
troller of the city of New York, whose knowledge of the subject and 
whose honesty will hardly be questioned, is authority for the state- 
ment that the water system of that city is a paying investment, 
"that after paying the interest on the bonds issued to aci,uire it 
"and provide for the principal, there remains a substantial profit 
"over the cost of maintenance ; that while large sums must be ex- 
"pended in the future for extensions, yet the receipts will increase 
"even more rapidly than the expenditures, and it is only a matter 
"of time when the city will own, free of debt, a vast system of Water 
"Works that will return to the public treasury a verj' large net in- 


Mayor M. P. Snyder, of Los Angeles, writes to this Committee 
under date of December i8, 1Q02, as follows: "From Februarv r, 
1902 to November 30th, 1902, the Los An;^eles Domestic Water 
"Works have produced for the city a profit of approximately $220, 
"000. You will notice, however, that the expenditures have been 
"greatly enlarged by rea. on of improvement^ and e.xten^ions of the 
"water plant. Public ownership has been demonstrated to be 


The relative charges for water in Los Angeles and Oakland 
will be shown later. 

Bonds issued for Water Works are not ordinarily paid out of 
taxation, and interest charges are included in the annual appropria- 
tions, if at all, only as a matter of bookkeeping, because the income 
derived from water sold is ample to j^iy l)otli interest and sinking 
fund requirements in addition to tlie cost of maintenance and oper- 


While the tendency on the part of all progressive cities toward 
Municipal Ownership of their Water Supply seems very strong, it 
appears to us that there are reasons of peculiar weiglit and force 
whv Oakland, as a municipality, should take over to itself this busi 
nes's. Our people are suft'eiing under a very high scbe'lult o'" water 
rates. While complete data for comparison is not at l:and, it may 
be safely asserted that our rates are among the very hig hest in the 
country. Flat rates here are fully double those of Los Angeles. 
The metre rate here to moderate consumers is nearly five times the 
rate in force in Los Angeles, being at the rate of thirty-three cents 
per loo cubic feet in Oakland against seven cents in Los Angeles. 
Our rates are based upon an excessive capitalisation (the result of 
a consolidation of two competing companies) upon a valuation of 
the existing plant, which we believe is greatly in excess of the sum 


necessary for the city to acquire for itself an adequate supply and a 
far superior distributing system, and upon a rate of interest on such 
valuation which is fully twice as much as a prosperous city like 
Oakland should pay upon any bonded indebtedness it might incur 
to acquire a plant of its own. 


By virtue of a provision in our State Constitution, the duty of 
fixing rates for water supplied by the private corporation for use 
both by the city and the inhabitants, devolves upon the City Coun- 
cil. It is manifestly for the immediate financial interest of the pri- 
vate corporation that the rates should be fixed as high as possible. 
On the other hand, it is natural that councilmen should be subject 
to some pressure on the part of consumers to have rates fixed on a 
low scale. The provisions of the Constitution as to the basis or 
data which shall govern the council in their action on water rates, 
are found in practice to be of very uncertain interpretation, and 
they have been made to cover almost any rates, high or low, which 
a council may choose to impose. The conflicting interests of 

NICIPAL GOVERNMENT. With the public mind in a constant state of 
agitation on this subject (a condition which is the natural result of 
present excessive water rates), we see developed a strenuous effort 
on the part of the corporation to secure the election of members of 
the legislative branch who can be counted on to favor its interests ; 
while on the other hand, there is danger that candidates will be nom- 
inated and supported by a large element of voters, solely on the 
basis of their supposed or professed attitude toward this one ques- 
tion rather than on their general high character and integrity and 
their capacity for dealing with public affairs. Experience has 


and the opportunity for bribery are then present, and it has been 
well said that no safeguards of the law can prevent corruption when 
both parties are willing. 


No officer of a city government, who is under obligation to a 
public utility corporation for his nomination and election, or for any 
other reason, is capable of judging fairly between the interests of 
a city and its citizens on the one part and those of such corpora- 
tion on the other. 

Although the law was framed to prevent oppression, yet in its 
construction and execution it has proved a failure. It has been 
fruitful only of constant conflict between the interests involved ; of 
costly litigation ; of corruption in municipal politics ; of suspicion in 
the public mind regarding the integrity of officials; of complaints as 
to the quality of water, and of the inadequacy of service ; and, more 


than all, it has failed of its very purpose to bring about such reason- 
able rates as are satisfactory to the great body of water consumers. 

The evils which the people of Oakland suffer, under the 
unfortunate system we have just reviewed, have become un- 

It may now be proper to anticipate and to answer the chief 
argument that is currently used in opposition to municipal owner- 
ship, viz: "The public cannot successfully administer." The emi- 
nently satisfactory financial results shown by one of the largest pub- 
licly owned and operated water systems in the country, the Metro- 
politan system in Massacliusetts, could be cited as one example to 
the contrary ; but that the management of such an enterprise by a 
municipality is not ordinarily as carefully and economically conduc- 
ted as by a private corporation, we think must be admitted. 

The differences are manifest. 


In the private corporation the officials and servants are ap- 
pointed under the tests of ability and fitness for their respective 
positions. They are actuated by the single and common purpose 
of making an adequate profit on the capital intrusted to their care, 
and each is held to an account of personal responsibility ; their man- 
agement being gauged by the financial results that it yields. 

Under municipal control the appointments are usually not 
made upon such tests. There is not the same common incentive 
spurring officials to give their best efforts to the service, and there 
is lacking the sense of either immediate or remote personal respon- 
sibility, excepting to public opinion, which in some instances has 
been held in silent or open contempt. 

These are the real differences ; they do not affect the principle 
of municipal administration, but they do affect the results. 
Knowing this, bad results are deserved by any community 
that entrusts its interests to incompetent, indifferent, or bad 
agents. But even unsatisfactory results are likely to be far prefer- 
able to many of the evils that follow in the train of the present 
system based upon the laws. of our State. 

It is evident that with this public service function in ihe hands 
of a private corporation, the business is not free from interfeience 
and dictation by political manipulators. It is also subject to levies 
for campaign purposes and in various ways large expenditures are 
demanded and made of a nature that could not be charged on the 
corporation books, if the latter were open for public inspection. 
The claim is then made, on behalf of the corporation, that high rates 
and large earnings are necessary in a business that is subject to the 
whims of city officials, to compensate for the risk it takes of being 
unfairly treated at their hands. 


We dismiss this branch of our report with the following addi- 
tional quotation from Mr. Coler's work on Municipal Government: 
"There is no feature of Municipal Government more firmly estab- 


"lished than the simple business proposition that cities should own 
"and control their Water Supply. An abundant and inexhaust- 
"ible supply of water is just as essential to the life of a city as 
"ground on which to build and air to breathe. 

"The experiment of private ownership of water has been tried 
"in various countries and ages, always with unfortunate results. 
"Aside from business considerations, the Private Ownership and 
"control of the Water Supply of a city is repugnant to every sense 
"of freedom and independence. When people of intelligence unite 
"their interests in a close community, they must of necessity make 
"common cause of certain indispensable rights and privileges, chief 
"among which are the means of healthful existence." 

We recommend that the ritizens of Oakland take action towards 
securing a Water Supply System under Municipal Ownership. This 
conchision has been reached after careful and unprejudiced inves- 
tigation of the facts, independent of public sentiment on the sub- 
ject, but we feel sure it is in accord with that of the property-own- 
ing and tax-paying portion of our community. 


Your Committee, having come to the conclusion that our city 
should own its water works, has given much time and thought to 
investigating the sources of water supply. To this end we have 
employed competent engineers and made more or less extended 
examination of a number of sources, and have rejected, as either 
too expensive, or inadequate, all except four, which are: i. San 
Pablo and Pinole Creeks, supplemented by artesian wells within 
the city limits. 2. The Contra Costa Water Works. 3. The Niles 
gravel bed, usually called by engineers the "Niles Cone." 4. Ala- 
meda Creek. We take them up in their order for discuss-on: 



About eight millions of gallons of water per diem can be ob- 
tained from San Pablo and Pinole Creeks by the construction of a 
reservoir on either one of said creeks and connecting, by means of 
a diverting dam and flume, the flow of the water from the other 
creek to the reservoir. The most serious objection to the charac- 
ter of the water from Pinole Creek can be obviated by diverting 
the water before it reaches the alkali lands on said creek. The 
water shed of these two creeks is thirty-two (32) square miles. The 
water shed of the San Leandro Creek, which supplies Lake Chabot, 
is forty-one (41) miles. The rain fall on the San Pablo and Pinole 
water sheds is nearly two inches greater than on the San Leandro 
creek water shed. We are of the opinion that the city of Oakland 
would fare as well if supplied with water from San Pablo and Pinole 
Creeks as it does now from San Leandro Creek, leaving out of con- 
sideration the additional water supply that the Contra Costa Water 
Company obtains from its wells below the Niles Cone. Under the 
laws of this State the city of Oakland may exercise the right o[ em- 
inent domain, and has the power to condemn the lands it may need 


bed undergoes a natural process of filtration and is of the best qual- 
ity. It is better than it is possible to make the water from San 
Leandro Creek or from any other creek whose water shed is not 
high up on the mountains or covered by a growth of brush and tim- 
ber. Of late years the experience of large cities in Europe and in 
the East, and of the communities in Southern California, demon- 
strates that ground water is of better qtiality and less subject to 
variations of season than surface waters. At the present time fifty- 
four per cent of American cities are dependent on ground water. 
Brooklyn gets all of its water from wells. London and Paris are 
largely supplied from that source. We understand that Vienna 
and some other large cities use only ground water. The trend of 
engineering authority seems to favor ground water if it can be ob- 
tained. The Bay Cities Water Company, that proposes to utihze 
the waters of Coyote Creek in Santa Clara county, and expects to 
obtain 50,000,000 gallons per diem therefrom, intends to pump the 
water from a great gravel bed, into which the creek flows, instead 
of building restraining dams. The gravel bed thoroughly filters 
the water. There can be no doubt that the Niles gravel bed con- 
stitutes an immense natural re.'^ervoir of filtered water, from whifh 
sufficient maybe obtained, not only for Oakland, but also for Berke- 
ley and Alameda, unless the inflow into this reservoir is perma- 
nently cut off. 

Can the inflow into this great natural reservoir be permanently 
cut off ? Your committee has employed two competent engineers 
to investigate the subject and they are not agreed as to whether it 
is possible to cut off this inflow. The Spring Valley Water Works 
has already constructed a dam to bed rock a short distance above 
Niles by which the visible surface flow of the creek is diverted in 
summer to San Francisco. Both engineers are agreed that this 
diversion of the six millions of gallons daily of water flowing through 
the canyon will not deprive the gravel bed of a sufficient supply to 
subserve the needs of the people on this side of the bay. Both are 
agreed also that this reservoir is so large that, though we should 
have a season when no water at all came down the canyon, the sup- 
ply in the reservoir would not be exhausted. Mr. Hicks, a com- 
petent engineer, testified that this natural reservoir holds a supply 
sufficient for two and a half years. We are informed that there 
never has yet been a season when water did not come down the can- 
yon and flow into this gravel bed. 

One of our engineers, Mr. W. H. Sanders, of Los Angeles and 
Pomona, has had great experience in developing subterranean wat- 
ers in Southern California. As is well known, the fruit orchards of 
that section of country are wholly dependent upon irrigation, and, 
the rain fall for the last five years having been small, the horticul- 
tural interests of Southern California have been preserved by devel- 
oping subterranean waters, which have been proved to be far in ex- 
cess of any heretofore supposed possibilities. Mr. Sanders has been 
very successful as an engineer in this work of developing ground 
water. He believes that the Niles gravel bed is in part supplied ty 


percolation from the valleys above through openings in the rock below 
the surface of the apparent bed rock. In support of his theory he 
cites to us the experience of the owners of irrigating wells driven 
into the gravel beds below the mouth of San Antonio Creek north 
of Pomona. From these wells a large amount of subterranean 
water is obtained for irrigating the orchards below. A tunnel was 
driven across the San Antonio Creek just above the gravel bed and 
on the bed rock, in order to intercept all the water that, came down 
the creek and which did not pass over the surface of the creek bed. 
It was supposed that by doing so it would tap the source of supply 
of the wells driven in the gravel bed below. The plan did not 
work, for it was found that the supply of water to the gravel bed 
was not affected and the wells still continued to receive their water 
from the water shed of the creek. 

Mr. Rudolph Hering, whose reputation in the United States as 
an engineer is second to none, was brought by your committee from 
New York to investigate the same matters submitted to Mr. Sanders. 
Mr. Hering is most conservative in his opinion, and while he be- 
lieves and reports that the Niles gravel bed, under present condi- 
tions, will afford an ample supply of water to Oakland, yet does not 
say that it is impossible for the Spring Valley Water Works, by 
future operations, to cut off the inflow into the gravel bed. 

Mr. Sanders believes the inflow into the gravel bed cannot be 
shut off by anything that' can be done by the Spring Valley Water 
Works, because he is of the opinion that more water falls on the 
water shed of Alameda and Calaveras creeks than comes down the 
visible beds of those creeks or is taken up by evaporation or plant 
life, and therefore must escape into the gravel bed at Niles through 
apertures in the rock below the apparent bed rock. 

Your committee is not competent to say which of these two 
engineers is right, and does not believe it possible to decide the ques- 
tion save by actual test. Of couise it is not a practical question 
and will never be decided if the Spring Valley Water Works does 
not undertake to prevent a sufficiency of storm water coming down 
Alameda and Calaveras Creeks to keep the Niles gravel bed full. 
We do not believe a conflict between the Spring Valley Water 
Works and the city of Oakland on this proposition is likely to arise. 
The reasons for this will more fully appear when we come to discuss 
the work of that corporation on our side of San Francisco Bay. But 
if the Spring Valley Water Works should succeed in preventing a 
sufficient inflow into the Niles gravel bed from the winter rains, the 
condition of Oakland will not be as unfortunate if it owns its own 
waterworks as it will be if it continues to depend on the Contra Cos- 
ta Water Company, for the reason that the city will be in a position 
by virtue of owning its distributive system and a pipe line to Niles 
to compel the Spring Valley Water Works to give us water at Niles 
paying it a reasonable compensation therefor. The wells known as 
the Dingee wells derive their water, no doubt, from these same grav- 
el beds, and if the inflow to these beds is cut off, Oakland must be 
the sufferer whether she owns her own water works and pumping 


plant or depends upon the works and pumping plant of the Contra 
Costa Water Company. If she owns her own water works she will 
be in a position to treat with the Spring Valley Water Works as the 
necessities of the case require. 

This brings us to the discussion of a subject of the utmost pos- 
sible importance, not only to the city of Oakland, but to the cities 
of Berkeley and Alameda and the outlying districts contiguous to 
those cities, and which must inevitably in the near future become a 
part thereof, viz; 



The city of Oakland now has a population of about eighty-two 

thotisand and is rapidly growing. The cities of Alameda and 
Berkeley are rapidly growing. The community including these 
three cities now constitutes an important portion of the State of 
nia, and in the near future these cities will have within their bor- 
ders half a million of people. They must have water. The San 
Leandro, San Pablo and Pinole Creeks, all combined, are not suf- 
ficient for that purpose for any long period, nor is the water to be 
derived therefrom of as good quality as that taken either from Ala- 
meda Creek or from the Niles Cone. Alameda Creek and Calaveras 
Creek are the natural water supply of the communities on our side 
of the bay of San Francisco and very soon will constitute the only 
sufficient supply. This is true whether the -water is taken from the 
gravel bed at Niles or higher up the stream. 

The Spring Valley Water Works for more than forty years has 
furnished water to the inhabitants of San Francisco. Nearly thirty 
years ago the city of San Francisco employed engineeis and caused 
investigations to be made looking to tlie acquiring of water by the 
municipality, sufficient in quantity for many moic yea is to come. 
These engineers, after examination, reported that the Spring Valley 
Water Works owned the sources of supply of water on the peninsula, 
but that Alameda Creek and Calaveras Cieek could fumith all the 
water needed by the city for an indefinite time in the future. As 
soon as the report became public the Spring Valley Water Works, 
for the purpose, no doubt, of heading off the acquisition by the city 
of San Francisco of its own water supply, and also, in all probabil- 
ity, for the purpose of heading off any comjieting corporation, pur- 
chased sufficient of the water rights on Alameda Creek and in Cala- 
veras Valley to control that source of supply. The result was t' at 
the city of San Francisco alaandoned its purpose and the Spring 
Valley Water Works has ever since contimird to fiirni^h its inha'^i- 
tants with water. That corporation actually did nothing toward 
utilizing the waters of Alameda Creek for manv years, but about 
fourteen years ago, instead of utili7ing the supplies it alreadv owned 
on the San Francisco peninsula, but which had not been brought 
into use, viz: Pescadero, San Gregorio and Butano Creeks, it be- 
gan elaborate works for diverting the water from Alameda Creek 
and from Alameda county to the San Francisco side of the bay. In 


our opinion it was good business policy for the Spring Valley Water 
Works to do just what it did in the premises, but as a matter of fact 
there was no real necessity to go outside the peninsula of San Fran- 
cisco to get water for the inhabitants of that city. 

In prosecuting its work in Alameda county it was necessary 
in certain cases, to bring suits against the owners cf land on the 
banks of the Alameda Creek co condemn their riparian rights. In 
all such actions the first thing requisite to prove is that public neces- 
sity requires the taking of the property in dispute for public use. 
The first thing, therefore, that the Spring Valley Water Works was 
required to prove in the suits brought by it was that public neces- 
sity required the diversion of the waters of Alameda Creek to San 
Francisco. But a test of that question, viz: does public necessity 
require the diversion of the waters of Alameda Creek for the use of 
the inhabitants of San Francisco, was carefully avoided, as we are 
informed, in every case tried in the courts. In those cases it was 
shown that the owners of riparian rights had received some money 
on account from the Spring Valley Water Works, or had made 
agreements relating to other lands than those in dispute with the 
Spring Valley Water Works, and therefore it was contended that the 
owners of the land were estopped from raising the question of public 
necessity. Our courts held in every case with the Spring Valley Wa+er 
Works on that proposition, and therefore the question as to whether 
or not it was necessary, in order to secure a sufficient supply of water, 
for the city of San Francisco, for the Spring Valley Water Works to 
come to our side of the bay and take the waters of Alameda Creek, has 
never been judicially determined. If there were no sufficient sup ply cf 
water on the San Francisco side of the bay, and there was enough on 
the Alameda side of the bay, irrespective of Alameda Creek, for the 
people of Oakland, Alameda and Berkeley, then there can be no 
doubt that the law of eminent domain could be invoked for the pur- 
pose of condemning the waters of Alameda Creek for the use of the 
inhabitants of San Francisco. But if there is water enough capable 
of utilization on the San Francisco side of the bay to furnish the in- 
habitants of that city with an abundance, as we believe can te 
shown, then neither San Francisco nor any corporation supplying it 
with water, can come to the Alameda side of the bay and carry away 
the only supply of water adequate for the needs of the inhabitants 
of Oakland, Alameda and Berkeley. We go even further and main- 
tain that no corporation has a right to take the water necessary for 
our existence, unless there is absolutely no other way for the metro- 
politan city to get water. If there is not water on the peninsula for 
San Francisco she can obtain abundance in Santa Clara County or 
by going to the Sierras. 

It might also be a question, in case there is not sufficient water 
available for San Francisco, and likewise not enough for Berkeley, 
Alameda and Oakland outside of Alameda Creek, whether the last 
named cities do not have a prior right for their own supply from the 
waters of Alameda Creek before there can be any diversion to San 
Francisco. Our people can no more live without water than any other, 
We must have it. It is absolutely essential, not only to the pros- 


perity but even to the continued existence of the communities on 
this side of the bay, and it cannot be tolerated that our only suffi- 
cient source of supply should be taken from us by a coq.>oration to 
sell to another city. And the case is made much worse when the 
large amount of water furnished by Pescadero, San Gregorio and Bu- 
tano Creeks, and other streams on the same side of the bay, are not 
utilized for the purpose of supplying San Francisco, or, if they are 
not sufficient, that that city does not avail itself of Coyote Creek or 
other creeks in Santa Clara County, or bring this necessary of life 
from the high Sierras. 

Section 1 240 of the Code of Civil Procedure provides what prop- 
erty may be taken for public use, and by subdivision 3 it is declared 
that there may be taken "property appropriated to public use; but 
"such property shall not be taken unless for a more necessary pub- 
"lic use than that to which it has been already appropriated." 

We understand that this Section of our Code is a statement of 
a general principle of the law of eminent domain. Taking into con- 
sideration all the conditions of water supply for San Francisco, Oak- 
land, Berkeley and Alameda, can there be any more necessary use 
for the waters of Alameda Creek than giving life to the great com- 
munities for which this creek is the natural supply? 

We therefore advise that Oakland may, by judicial proceed- 
ings, if no satisfactory arrangement can be made by contract, con- 
demn such of the property of Spring Valley Water Works as may 
be necessary to give us water. If there is a question as to whether 
we should have a right to condemn and appropriate the water to 
the extent already diverted for use to San Francisco by the Spring 
Valley Water Works, there can be no question that the waters not 
already actually in use and which include all of the stoim waters cn 
the Alameda and Calaveras water sheds may be condemned. 


As the result of our investigations your committee is of opinion 
that the city of Oakland should take into its own hands the supply- 
ing of its inhabitants with water and that the best source of supply 
this side of the Sierras is that to be found in the Niles gravel bed. 

We therefore recommend the construction of an adequate dis- 
tributing system, the laying of pipe lines to Niles, the purchase from 
the owners of land on this gravel bed of the right to develop and car- 
ry away water for our use, and the construction of pumping plants 
thereon. Proceedings in the courts should be instituted in all cases 
where the owners refuse to take fair compensation for their prop- 
erty. We do not believe it necessary to purchase the water rights 
of a large amount of lands on these gravel beds, but experience will 
be the best test as to the quantity necessary to give the city all the 
water it needs. 

Your committee, in anticipation of a probable rise in the ask- 
ing prices of lands from which water may be taken, has already se- 
cured options upon certain lands, which options will be assigned to 
the city as soon as proceedings are instituted for securing water 
from those gravel beds. These options have been secured upon the 


advice of engineers that the lands covered by them are the most 
suitable for water development. 

If it is said that the question is before the Supreme Court as to 
whether the owner of land in which there is a supply of percolating 
water can take the water from the underground reservoir for the use 
of a city, our reply is that until the recent decision of Katz v Walk- 
inshaw, the Supreme Court of this State has uniformly held that 
underground water percolating through the gravel belongs to the 
owner of the land and he could do as he pleased with it, and similar 
decisions have been rendered by the highest court of most of the 
states of the Union. The opinion in the case referred to was written 
by the late Mr. Justice Temple, but the Supreme Court has 
granted a rehearing therein, and it is not at all probable that the 
original opinion will be sustained, as it is in conflict with repeated 
prior adjudications of our Supreme Court. That tribunal will very 
soon finally dispose of the question. If, however the remote con- 
tingency occurs of the doctrine announced by Mr. Justice Temple 
being affirmed by the court, then Oakland will have to settle with 
all of the owners of land affected in any way by withdrawing water 
from this underground reservoir. If the amount of the damage 
done cannot be agreed on the courts will fix them in condemnation 

The Contra Costa Water Company joined in the petition to the 
Supreme Court for a rehearing in Katz v Walkinshaw, for if the 
court should affirm that case, then, of course, the pumping from the 
Dingee wells can be enjoined, unless the Contra Costa Water Com- 
pany pays the owners of theproperty covering the gravel bed. The 
ultimate expense i.~, therefore, bound to come back unon Oakland 
if these water rights mu« t be purchased whether it buys its water 
from the Contra Co-:ta Water Company or own= its own plant. 

It must not be overlooked, in considering what should be paid 
to the owners of land covering the Niles Cone, that if it should turn 
out from actual test that the Spring Valley Water Works can cut 
off the inflow into the gravel bed, then these property owners will 
have no water to sell, for they have already sold their riparian rights 
to the Sprini^ Valley Water Works, giving to that corporation the 
right to impound and divert all the waters of the creek. The city of 
Oakland has, however, the right, in order to get water for its inhab- 
itants, to condemn all the water of Alameda Creek over and above 
the usual daily flow now diverted by the Spring Valley Water 
Works. And we believe the city of Oakland may acquire by con- 
demnation, as a "more necessary public use," the water now being 
diverted to San Francisco. 

It is the opinion of competent engineers that the lands between 
Niles and the bay, and covering this cone, will not be affected at all 
by pumping out the water from the gravel beds below, or by shut- 
ting off the inflow from Alameda Creek. They say the only possible 
effect will be to lower the wells bored into the gravel beds, but as 
this water is only used for domestic purposes, and can only be used 
for domestic purposes of the farmers living on the land, except in 


the case of the Contra Costa Water Works and some manufacturing 
establishments, the amount of damage that Oakland would liave to 
pay would undoubtedly be small. 

By resorting first to the gravel beds for water we may avoid 
conflict with the Spring Valley Water Work<, for we may be 
able to get all we need from these gravel beds notwithstanding any - 
thing the Spring Valley Water Works may do. But in the event 
that the inttow of water to the Niles Cone is shut off, the owneiship 
by Oakland of a distributing system and a pipe line to Niles will be 
of great advantage, because the city then will be in a position either 
to make a favorable contract with the Spring Valley Water Works, 
or to proceed by condemnation to acquire a sufficient supply of 
water from Alameda Creek for our needs. As a larger amount of 
water can be obtained from Alameda Creek and Calaveras Creek 
than is necessary at present for the use of the people on this side of 
the bay, there- is no reason in law, nor objection from a business 
point of view, to the city of Oakland entering into a contract with 
the Spring Valley Water Works whereby the last named corpora- 
tion shall undertake to supply, at or near Niles, water at a .satisfac- 
tory rate per million gallons per diem, to be diverted at that point 
into the water works and distributing system belonging to the city 
of Oakland. If the city of Oakland msists upon its rights we have 
no doubt that a reasonable arrangement, fair to the Spring Valley 
Water Works and fair to our city, can be made for diverting water 
at Niles from Alameda Creek for the use of our people. And in case 
that an arrangement by contract cannot be made with the Spring 
Valley Water Works we have no doubt that the courts will uphold 
the people of Oakland in their right to condemn and appropriate the 
waters of Alameda Creek as against any claim that may be set up by 
the Spring Valley Water Works. That corporation should be noti- 
fied, and so should the people of San Francisco, that the cities on 
this side of the bay intend to assert their rights to the waters of the 
two streams spoken of whenever that water becomes an absolute 
necessity for our use. All future expenditure made by the Spring 
Valley Water Works in developing or impounding the waters of 
those two creeks should be with full notice that Oakland, Berkeley 
and Alameda know their rights in the premises and will enforce 

Before concluding our report we desire to add that the time 
may come when it will be to the interest of all the people about the 
bay of San Francisco, inc.uding San Francisco, San Jose, Oakland, 
Alameda and Berkeley, to bring from the Sierras enough water to 
meet the needs of all their inhabitants Whenever concer ed action 
can be taken in that direction by the cities named a cheap and abun- 
dant supply of as fine water as there is in the world can be obtained. 
The first cost of undertaking, however, is so great that even the 
largest of the citie- named will not, probably, for some years to 
come, undertake it on its own account unaided by its sister 
cities. But it is altor^ethei probable that private capital will, 
in the near Tuture, utilize the water>- of one or ;nore of the rivers 
flowing down t.]]t western slope of the Sierras for generating 


electric power, and then, after using it for that purpose, conduct 
the water to the bay of San Francisco for use of the inhabitants 
of the different cities about it. ^ 


We believe the accompanying estimate of City Engineer F. 
C. Turner, being $2,751,000, for everything except Water Rights 
and necessary Real Estate outside the city for pumping plants, 
etc., is a liberal estimate; that it is ample for the construction of a 
modern and efficient plant, and that he has made due allowance 
for present high prices of materials and labor. 

We cannot make a close estimate of the cost of acquiring neces- 
sary Water Rights and Real Estate for Pumping Plants, but we do 
not believe it will exceed $500,000. 

It is our opinion that the total cost of the entire System, in- 
cluding the Water, can be kept within the sum of $3,500,000. 

Herewith are presented the Reports of Mr. Hering and Mr. San- 
ders on the Niles Cone, of Mr. Turner on a needed Distributive Sys- 
tem, and of Mr. Miller on Wells in the city of Oakland and on the 
Distributive System of Contra Costa Water Company. 


Finally your committee desires to say that the most important 
requisite for securing an adequate supply of water at reasonable 
cost, is the election to the legislative body of our city of representa- 
tive men, of character, ability, and firmness. The money for water 
must be raised by the issue of bonds, and our people will never vote 
for a bond issue until they know and have confidence in the men 
who must handle the large sums necessary to make the enterprise a 
success. There must be negotiations with able corporation mana- 
gers. A weak council, however honest, cannot compete on equal 
terms with such men. Our representatives must know when and 
how to negotiate, and when and how to fight. Our city is in a diffi- 
cult position, and we cannot get out of it unless we elect our best 
citizens to office. If we can elect an honest and capable council, 
all other civic good things will be added unto us. 

R. H. Chamberlain, 
John L. Howard, 
Warren Olney, 
Sol Kahn, 
James P. Taylor. 


Oakland, December 30, 1902. 

To the Citizens' Committee on the Investigation of Water Supply 
for the City of Oakland, California. 

Gentlemen : — You have requested me to investigate the avail- 
able sources of subterranean water at Niles and vicinity and to des- 
ignate the quantity which may be supplied therefrom to the city of 

For this purpose after meeting your Chairman and obtaining 
from him particulars, I proceeded to Hayward and went over the 
territory which is called the Niles Cone and from which it is sought 
to obtain a supply. 

The next day I met your Committee and in general outlined 
what I believed could be done to answer your question within the 
limited time available. On a subsequent day I examined a large 
portion of the valley of the Alameda and Calaveras Creeks above 
the canyon through which the water of these two creeks reaches the 
cone at the base of the mountain range. 

For the purpose at hand you have also placed at my disposal 
numerous maps, reports and other data bearing upon the question, 
all of which I have carefully examined. No special survevs, bor- 
ings, gaugings or other field measurements have been made by me. 

From my personal examination of the ground , from what you 
have furnished me, and from the experience I have gained in similar 
cases, I respectfully present the following report : 

To maintain a constant draft of water at any locality there 
must be from some source a perpetual supply of at least the same 
quantity of water, which primary source is the rainfall upon the 
watershed or drainage area above the point where the draft is made. 
In the present case the area is the watershed of Alameda and Cala- 
veras Creeks above Niles stated as being about six hundred square 
miles, and the rainfall is the precipitation upon this area. 

From the rainfall Distribution Map, accompanying a Report on 
Irrigation and Water Supply of California, by William Ham. Hall 
State Engineer, I find the precipitation at various points at or 
near the watershed to be as follows: 

From your Secretary I have received a statement of the rain- 
fall gauged for twenty-two years at San Leandro Lake or Lake Cha- 
bot, from which I find the average at this point to be 22.6 inches. 

Taking into consideration the extent, character and distribu- 
tion of the several characteristic parts of this entire watershed, I 
believe that 20 inches is a fair average to assume for the mean 
annual rainfall upon it, a figure which is at least sufficiently close 
for the present purpose. 


16.75 inches. 

17.23 inches. 

13.71 inches. 

6.85 inches. 

16.70 inches. 

37.16 inches. 

Livermore . 
Altamont . 

Mount Diablo . . . 
Mount Hamilton 


Of this rain the main part is evaporated from the Surface of 
the ground, or disappears by being absorbed by plants. Another 
part visibly runs off on the surface into the creek and reaches the 
new dam of the Spring Valley Water Works. The remaining part of 
the water percolates in and through the soil until it reaches the 
water table, from which it is finally discharged as springs or escapes 
in the form of myriads of streamlets into the open water courses, 
creeks, ditches or into the bay. 

No exact division of these parts seems to be available in this 
case, and I have been obliged to form my own conclusion based on 
similar cases in other localities, on the concentration of the rainfall 
over about six months of the year, on the average declivity of the 
surface and permeability of the soil, on the existing ground water 
development, and on the amount of vegetation covering the area. 
My best judgment would divide the annual rainfall of 20 inches into 
not over two and two-thirds inches of surface runoff under present 
conditions of development, one-third inch for ground water runoff, 
and 1 7 inches for evaporation. It is probable that the run off will 
be rather less and not more than these amounts. 

A water supply such as we are considering is dependent upon 
the minimum and not on the average rainfall. A city must have an 
ample source at all times, and particularly in dry seasons, in order 
to prevent possible injurious sanitary results and danger from a 
large conflagration. 

/iii %In view of the large underground storage which is found avail- 
able at Niles, it is proper to take the minimum rainfall, not for a 
single year but for two low years in succession. From the Lake 
Chabot records we have the following: 

1884- 85 12.92 inches. 

1885- 86 20.35 inches. 

1886- 87 15.43 inches. 

1887- 88 14.59 inches. 

1888- 89 17-05 inches. 

We have aiso the following Mount Hamilton observations: 

1887- 88. . . ; 17.66 inches 

1 888- 89 25.73 inches. 

For these two periods of drought I do not think we should as- 
sume an annual average for the entire watershed in question of more 
than 1 5 inches which in my opinion would be a liberal allowance. 

The foregoing division of the rainfall into evaporation and run- 
off, when referred to this small rainfall, would, in my judgment give 
not over one and three-fourths inches for the surface runoff, one- 
fourth inch for the ground water runoff, and about 13 inches for 
evaporation. I even feel sure that a year might occur when the 
rain would fall in such light quantities that the total combined run- 
off might be reduced to one inch instead of two inches, precedent for 
which have occurred in this neighborhood. 

The Spring Valley Water Works through their position have at 
present the prior right to the two inches and respectively one inch 


of rainfall per annum -which a dry year would furnish. But their 
present works are not capable of taking away more than about two- 
fifths of one inch of rainfall. If two inches of rain are available, 
then, after deducting what they remove, one and three-fifths inches 
remain; if but one inch is available, but three-fifths of an inch re- 
main. The question now arises as to how much of this remainder 
can be secured for the present purpose. 

I am well satisfied, and this opinion is confirmed by Prof. A. C. 
Lawson of the University of California, that no ground water in any 
appreciable quantity percolates through the rocks of the mountains 
separating the watershed of the Alameda Creek above the Spring 
Valley Water Works dam into Niles Canyon to the plains below. 
Whatever water is available below must pass over this dam or be 
supplied by the rainfall upon the plains themselves. Regarding the 
value of the latter during a dry year, the quantity would hardly be 
appreciable, on account of both the smallness of the area and the 
clay soil covering a large part of it, which would tend to cause a 
more complete runoff, and after finding its way into the creeks 
would become unsuitable for a domestic supply. 

We are therefore confined to the consideration of the water 
■which flows over the Spring Valley Water Works dam, or, in the 
usual term, is wasted after this corporation's conduit is filled. 

The water from a two-inch runoff on six hundred square miles 
is 2,787,840,000 cubic feet, or 20,908 million gallons per annum or 
say 57 million gallons per day, uniformly distributed as to time. 
Deducting the quantity withdrawn by the Water Works, let us sup- 
pose it to be the present maximum of ten million gallons, we still 
have a theoretical average overflow during a dry year of 47 million 
gallons per day or 17,258 million gallons per annum. 

To utilize this water, as much of it as practicable must be held 
back and temporarily stored, and not discharged into the San Fran- 
cisco Bay as at present by the surface and underground flows. The 
Niles Cone has been suggested for this purpose, which is an accumu- 
lation of gravel and sand deposited ages ago by the Alameda Creek 
after it emerged from the canyon and emptied its waters upon the 
plains. The material is very porous and at present readily yields 
large supplies of water. Many wells have been sunk into it. Some 
of which are said to yield a thousand gallons per minute. 

^ The surface of the ground water slopes from the canyon to the 
bay. Usually the slope in such material ranges from three to six 
feet per mile varying with the quantity of flow, the greater slope be- 
ing found in wet weather. In dry weather the level of the ground- 
water at Niles should therefore be much lower than in wet weather, 
while there can practically be no difference near the bay. 

I have examined the character of this gravel, both in place at 
the creek and after it has been excavated from near the surface. If 
the gravel maintains this character throughout its bed, I should say 
that from one cubic foot it was practicable to withdraw a quantity 
of water equal to one-sixth of a cubic foot. At its best, one-third of 


the content of such gravel consists of voids which may hold water. 
The sizes of the grains in this case, however, are quite irregular, 
which reduces the void content, and besides the capillarity will not 
allow all of the water to be withdrawn. Therefore one-sixth of the 
total mass, is, in my opinion, about the proper figure here to allow. 
This reasoning holds good in the case of sand as well as gravel. In 
the former the water is withdrawn less rapidly, and therefore re- 
quires more frequently placed wells and finer strainers than gravel, 

I am informed that there are at least six square miles over 
which this gravel extends. One square mile having 27,878,400- 
square feet of surface, can therefore store 4,646,000 cubic feet of 
usable water for every foot in depth. Therefore to withdraw daily 
one million cubic feet or 7,500,000 gallons, or annually 2,737 million 
gallons from this area, without any replenishment, we need about 
13 feet of depth. Or, we could withdraw daily 15 million gallons, 
or annually, 5,475 million gallons, by drawing the water from the 
gravel to a depth of about 26 feet. The gravel at some places ex- 
tends to a very much greater depth. Whether this depth is equally 
great over the entire six square miles I have no evidence, but the 
indications favor a depth more than sufficient for the present pur- 
pose. In fact the available storage capacity seems to be so large 
that a uniform daily draft can not be affected even by a very irregu- 
lar replenishment of the water. 

It is therefore clear from the data that have been given me and 
from my own examinations, that the Niles Cone has difTerent stor- 
age capacity to furnish a daily supply of 1 5 million gallons through- 
out a whole year without any replenishment whatever from Ala- 
meda Creek during this time. 

We have now to examine into the important connecting link 
between the delivery of the water over the dam above Niles, and the 
storage of the same in the Niles CoiiC. 

It has been concluded above that under present~conditions of 
development there may be 47 million gallons of water per day or 
17,258 million gallons per annum wasting over the Spring Valley 
Water Works' dam in dry years, with a remote possibility that occa'- 
sionally there might be perhaps but one-half this amount, or even 
still less. It has also been found that the storage capacity of the 
Niles Cone is sufficient to withdraw therefrom daily 15 million gal- 
lons, or annually 5,475 million gallons for one whole year without 
any replenishment whatever. 

The limits for the present problem of a perpetual supply lie in 
the transfer of the present flood waters of the creek to the gravel be- 
neath, which transfer should be sufficiently rapid to utilize as far 
as possible the full capacity, both of the available source of water 
and of the storage reservoir. 

The only local facts that seem to be available for the purpose of 
throwing light upon this question, are certain gaugings made by 
George F. Allardt, C. E. and which are obtained from testimony he 
gave in this city on January 18th, 1901. He reports that his gaug* 


ings on December 17th, 1896 showed a loss of water by percolation 
into the gravel underlying the creek between Bed Rock Dam and 
Bell Ranch Bridge of 27,580,000 gallons per day, but that the water 
in the river on that day was spreading over only one-sixth of the 
width of the ^ntire bed. 

From this and other information he makes an estimate of the 
amount of water, which, during the rainy season, would percolate 
into the gravel between the above points. After determining the 
average number of rainy days in the winter to be 48, he concludes 
that during these days there would filter into gravel from the creek 
7,189 million gallons, or about 150 million gallons per day. 

From an entirely independent but competent source I have 
received an estimate that the percolation from the creek has been at 
the rate of about 100 million gallons per day; for 48 days this would 
give 4,800 million gallons as filtering into the gravel during this 

The average daily flow of the creek during the time when Mr. 
AUardt made his estimate, is stated by him to have been about a 
thousand million gallons. He also reports that below the Niles 
Bridge the creek becomes dry soon after the cessation of rains and 
remains dry all summer, and gives it as his opinion that in the drv 
vear of 1887 to '88 the total amount of water passing over the Water 
Works' dam for one year, after deducting the amount diverted into 
the conduit, was about 6,981 million gallons. I have no reason to 
question these deductions. 

As the rate of consumption of 15 million gallons per day, would 
require a draft from the Niles Cone of 5,475 million gallons per an- 
num, it appears, assuming Mr. AUardt's deduction to be correct, 
that during the single dry year of 1887-88 there would have been 
enough infiltration to replenish the entire amount withdrawn. As- 
suming that the rate of infiltration had been only one hundred mil- 
lion gallons a day for 48 days, there would have been a.partial with- 
drawal of the storage reserve of only 675 million gallons, a small 
amount compared with the total reserve, not to speak of the infil- 
tration during the remaining part of the year. 

In the practice of water and sewage filtration throagh gravel 
and sand, a large experience has been gained with the rates at which 
water will pass through porous materials. The character of sand 
best suited for such purposes might be popularly characterized as 
equal to that of good mortar sand. The rate of percolation of aver- 
age river water for the present purpose through this material may 
be taken at four million gallons per acre per day, providing the 
surface sand was kept in a fairly clean condition, which the flowing 
water of the creek, and some special attention could accomplish. 
A coaser material would allow of a greater rate of filtration. 

Applying this conclusion and assuming that the length of the 
gravel bed in the river from Bed Rock Dam to BHl Ranch Bridge is 
30,000 feet and its average effective widih i-; 50 feet, the area for fil- 
tration would be about'3!; acres. Taking a rate of filtration of but 
*our million gallon' per acre per day, we would have a percolation 


of 140 million gallons per day, which piactically confirnii: Mr. 
Allardt's deduction from his measured flows. 

It should be repeated, howe^^er, iba: this rate, if continued 
indefiniteh^ means the necessily of preventing the surface of the 
bed ir3m eventually clogrring by falling up of the interstice:; near 
the Turface with clay or silt brought down by the turb-d water; of 
freshets. To prevent this occurrence no other difhculty except 
careful attention and an occasional takinc; over of some parts of 
the surface should be met. The intermittant dry season^ would 
help materially to improve the condition. 

Notwithstanding the fact that the figures which I have given 
contain margins of safety, a supply drawn from the Niles Cone 
would necessitate careful attention to all the conditions affecting it, 
so as to conserve the availab e water to the greatest practicable ex- 
tent. The figures apply clearly to the entire output of water which 
is now available, and not to condition"^ following any changes that 
tuuld affect the present flow over the Spring Valley Water Works. 

There is another, but much smaller source of supply of the same 
character which could be obtained in the same way, situated along 
the conduit line which would connect the Niles Cone with vour 
City. Where the Ran Lorenzo Creek issues from the mountains 
there is also a well marked Cone of the same gravelly character as 
the Niles Cone, and it would probably yield at least from one to 
two million gallons daily, during the driest season, judging from the 
extent and character of the area supplying it with water. 

You have asked me to state my opinion regarding the advant- 
ages of using a subterranean source of water for a city supply. It 
has been held for some time in Europe and recently also here, that 
there are but two sources of water supply for a modern community 
which are safe from a h3''gienic and acceptable from an aesthetic 
standpoint. These sources are naturally filtered water, otherwise 
known as spring, well or groundwater, and artificially filtered river 
or lake water, such as is furnished in a number of European cities 
and now is being introduced in our own country. All other sources 
are gradually being considered either objectionable or open to sus 
picion on account of their unprotected and exposed condition. Be- 
tween the two acceptable sources preference is given in Europe to 
the groundwater wherever available and practicable, for the reason 
that, with safeguards easily obtained the process of purification is 
conducted by nature according to definite, fixed laws, and removed 
from any possible carelessness or ignorance on the part of those op- 
erating an artificial filter. If the ground or spring water is free from 
surface or mineral pollution, no objection can be made to it, and it 
has been in fact always the favorite water for mankind. 

In the above discussion nothing has been said concerning the 
details of pumping required to take the water at a suitable and safe 
level at times both of plenty and of drought, nor of the most suit- 
able location on this cone for the extraction of the water. Further, 
the opinions and conclusions advanced have reference to the engi- 
neering standpoint alone, and are independent of any legal or prop- 


«rty right questions that might arise in the carrying out of this pro- 

Briefly to sum up the conclusion, it can be said, that the stor- 
age capacity of the Niles Cone, the quantity of water now flowing 
over the Spring Valley Water Works dam and naturally percolat- 
ing into this Cone from the river bed, are together sufficient to as- 
sure a safe permanent draft of water below Niles of 15 million gal- 
lons pel da}'. 

Respectfully presented 

( Signed ) Rudolph Hering. 

To the Citizens' Committee onWater Supply of the City of Oakland, 

Alameda County, Cal. 
Gentlemen: — 

Agreeable to your request made at the time of my recent visit 
to your City, I present the following report upon the water supply 
of the Niles Cone and vicinity. 

The investigation will be considered under the following heads: 

I. Rainfall. 
II. Watershed. 

III. Runoff? 

IV. Storage capacity of Cone and Vicinity. 
V. Draft on Cone. 



Statistics show that the average rainfall for San Francisco for 
47 years was about 23 inches. I believe the conclusion is fully war- 
ranted that the rainfall on the entire area of the watershed under 
consideration, will average at least as much as the rainfall in the 
City of San Francisco. 



The area of the watershed tributary to the Niles Cone 's, ap- 
proximately, 600 square miles and the Alameda Creek, with its trib- 
utaries, is the principal drainage stream. 

^ At the point where it debouches from the mountains, the eleva- 
tion is about 100 feet. The detritus from the mountains forms a 
cone with the apex above the Niles Bridge, but below the Springs 
Valley Water Works' dam, and spreads to the south and west in the 
form of a fan, the axis of the cone lying in about a straight line from 
the Niles Bridge to Centerville. The western part of the cone 
verges into another cone, which I designate as the Haywards Cone, 
somewhere near Alvarado. 

The cones are built up of boulders and gravel carried out of the 
canyons by floods, the coarsest material being deposited neai the 
canyon, the finer being carried farther away, thus forming a series 
of porous strata at different elevations. Through these series of 
porous strata the underflow of water passes or is retained, forming 
an underground reservoir as shown in the Allardt and Browne 
Profile and Map. 


The runoff is a much more difficult problem to solve. The 
most reliable basis of estimate is found in the measured runoff for a 
series of years, but if that is not to be obtained, as close an estimate 
as possible may be made from other streams in the district whose 
flow is known. 

LeConte estimates that in the vicinity of San Francisco when 
the yearly rainfall is 10, 20, 30, 40, or 50 inches, the runoff is approx- 
imately .05, 2, 9, 18 and 30 inches respectively. 


Schuyler's work on Reservoirs for Irrigation, etc., p. 203, says: 
"The average precipitation over all the Spring Valley Water Works 
sheds during the seven years from 1868 to 1875, was 43 5-10 inches 
from which the mean runoff was 35 5-10, per cent, including loss by 
evaporation. These watersheds are partly wooded undulating 
pasture lands, uncultivated, covered with deep soil, and clothed 
with native grasses that spring up annually from seed and have lit- 
tle permanent sod. The results of the measured catchment from 
the areas indicate, that in general terms, on watersheds of this 
character found 20 to 35 inches of rainfall are usually taken into 
the soil and absorbed in plant growth and evaporation." The 
above is an exact quotation from Mr. Schuyler, but it will be ob- 
served that he has omitted any estimate for percolation. He has 
apparently allowed for evaporation twice. It will be seen that if 
35 5-10 per cent goes to runofi and evaporation, it leaves 64 5-10 per 
cent for plant life and percolation. 

I am informed that the watershed under consideration, is, much 
of it, covered with a sandy porous soil. With a watershed of this 
character, it is safe to assume that 50 per cent or 11^2 inches of a 
23 inch rainfall, percolates through the soil and descends rapidly to 
a point beyond the reach of vegetation and augments the ground 

Eleven and one-half inches rainfall percolating over the water- 
shed under consideration, gives 119,926 million gallons, which rep- 
resents, on this basis of estimate, the amoimt of water that enters 
the ground and becomes the ground supply. 

The total watershed of 600 square miles with 23 inches rain fall 
gives 239,852 million gallons. 

The Le Conte estimate of runoff for this amount of rainfall would 
be 4 i-io inches, equal to 42,756 million gallons, leaving 197,096 
million gallons for plant life, evaporation and percolation. Allow- 
ing 50 percent of above (or 41 per cent of total rainfall) for percola- 
tion, gives 98,530 million gallons replenishment to the ground sup- 

If these assumptions are right for runoff, plant life and evapor- 
ation, it is self evident that the ground supply, or percolating water 
must find an outlet through a previous stratum to the lower levels. 

From the Niles Bridge to a point i ^ miles farther down the 
creek, the AUardt measurements showed a percolation or disappear- 
ance from the surface flow of 24 million gallons, (stream width 60 

This reaches the ground water of the Niles Cone and is readily 
perceived, after a dry period, in the raising of the level of the wells 
near the channel of the creek. 

To the question propounded by the Committee — "The effect of 
a large diversion of water in the Niles Canyon? " — I reply that it 
would undoubtedly affect the flow or runoff below the bridge, there- 
by decreasing the replenishment of the cone, in so far as its replen- 
ish ment is supplied by stream flow below the point of diversion. 
But inasmuch as my experience in Southern California shows that 


quite a large proportion of the rainfall on watersheds does not ap- 
pear in the surface flow at the mouth of the canyon and is not ac- 
counted for in loss by plant life and evaporation, therefore I con- 
clude that the water otherwise accounted for must find a subterran- 
ean outlet. 

The percolation of ground water is downward and all author- 
ities agree that it is towards a stream, lake or sea, and that the 
water will seek the lowest accessible channel. 

In the watershed under consideration the natural inference 
would be that it percolates towards these gravel beds, being the 
nearest accessible outlet. If this water did not find some outlet 
the soil would be surcharged with water over a considerable area of 
the low lying landt of the watershed. 



From the Profile Maps of Ross E. Browne and AUardt, I estimate 
the storage capacity of the cone at 1 7 ,595 million gallons. I consider 
this a very conservative estimate. This amount is on a basis 
of 40 feet as the average depth of gravel above sea level. 

Instances are found in the section being considered, where 
ground water is pumped from a point fifteen or more below sea 
level, the quality being found perfectly satisfactory, and there is 
without doubt, in the area now under consideration a very large 
amount of available water-bearing gravel lying below sea level. 
You will observe, however, that my estimates do not take any of 
this water into account. 



About 30 per cent of this 17,595 niillion gallons I place as that 
maximum draft for the cone by a series of wells. Reliable data 
would indicate that of water pumped from this gravel bed or conea 
for irrigation purposes, from 40 to 60 per cent finds its way by per- 
colation back to the gravel bed. 

The amount obtainable by wells from any stratum may be pre- 
dicted by comparison with wells bored to the same strata. I am 
informed that wells in that vicinity are pumped and 250,000 to one 
million gallons daily are obtained from separate wells. 

While the total quantity of water is generally increased by 
additional wells, the flow is not as great as the sum of the separate 
wells and a point is reached where the increase in quantity is not 
commensurate with the cost of development. 

The fact, however, that the water level in the wells of the Sugar 
Company at Alvarado has lowered since the operation of the so- 
called "Dingee Wells" does not, m my opinion, indicate any consid- 
erable lowering of the general ground water level but merely that 
such level, within what is technically known as "the circle of influ- 
ence" has been lowered. 



I am convinced that the City of Oakland would make no mis- 
take in selecting, as its source of supply, the Niles Cone. I believe 
that source to be thoroughly reliable, and I suggest the acquisition 
by the city of various tracts, considerably scattered within this gen- 
eral water-bearing gravel area. 

Trusting, gentlemen, that I have covered the several parts of 
the subject presented by you for my consideration, I am 
Very- respectfully, 
(Signed) W. H. SANDERS, 

Consulting Engineer 

Pomona, Cal., December 20, 1902. 

Oakland, January 5, 1903. 

The Citizens' Water Committee, 

Oakland, California. 

Gentlemen: — 

As requested by you I submit herewith an estimate of cost 
of a new Water Works System for the City of Oakland. It is based 
upon testimony given by expert engineering witnesses in the so- 
called Water Rate Suit, with such changes in prices and such addi- 
tions as are required for present conditions according to my own 
judgment. While only a preliminary estimate and somewhat 
general in its character it is believed to be very liberal and to allow 
an ample margin for contractors' profits and contingencies. 

Notes explaining a little more in detail are attached hereto, and 
also a complete estimate for a similar plant given by one of the wit- 
nesses in the Water Rate Suit. The capacity of the plant is 13,000- 
000 gallons per day. Summarized the estimate is as follows : 

Two pumping plants at $150,000 $ 300,000.00 

91,121 feet of 373^ inch conduit pipe of No. 6, 
wrought iron, including, cost of laying and cost of 

gates 537,000.00 

Distributing system, including real estate, inside the 
city, distributing reservoirs, and 14.000 meters; 
also an addition of $164,000 for use of cast iron 
mains, instead of sheet iron, for sizes between 14 in. 
and 24 in. inclusive 1,834,000.00 

Interest during construction 8o,coo.oo 

Total, exclusive of water rights and lands out- 
side the City of Oakland $2,751,000.00 

Very respectfully, 
(Signed) F. C. Turner, 

City Engineer. 



Pipe system as estimated by Messrs. Moore and 

Marx in 1900 $1,076,178.00 

Addition of 10 per cent for increased prices at present 107,618.00 

Pipe system of Messrs. Moore and Marx, 1902 1,183,796.00 

Distributing reservoirs, including real estate 100,000.00 

High service pumping plants, shops and tools 35,000.00 

Additional hydrants — 200 at $15.00 set in place 9,000.00 

services— 5,000 at $9.00 45,00000 

Small service mains (2-in)-i5o,ooo ft. at 25c, includ- 
ing gates and fittings, and laying 37,500.0 

Stock on hand, pipe fittings and extra parts 25,000.00 

Additional for cost of re -paving trenches 25 000.00 


7,720-5-8" at $12.00 set in place $92,640.00 210,000.00 

5.000--3-4" at $16.00 set in place 80,000.00 

1,000— at 20.00 set in place 20,000.00 

200-1 1-2" at 35.00 set in place 7,000.00 

50-2" at 57.50 set in place 2,875.00 

20- -3" at 100.00 set in place 2,000.00 

io-4"-|- at 250.00 set in place 2,500.00 

$207,01 5.00 

Add for extras and tools, etc 2,985.00 


Total $1,670,296.00 

Or in round numbers $1,670,000,00 

To use cast iron mains instead of sheet iron 
between sizes of 14 in. and 24 in., inclusive, 

add $164,000, making a total cost $t, 834, 000. 00 


Diameter 373/2"- Length of .^.Ivarado conduit, as 
used by P' of. Marx — 91,121 feet. Material No. 6 
wrought iron. The size of 373^2" is that used by 
Messrs. Marx and Moore for their proposed new 


Cost per foot — estimated from present prices : 

Pipe in lengths at works, San Francisco $4-35 

Freight, teaming and handling at $5.00 per ton . . .25 

Trenching and back filling .35 

Laying additional to above approx .25 

Extra work-bridges, hills, macadamized roads, etc., 

average .10 

Total per lineal foot : $5-3o 

Total per mile $27,984.00 

In round numbers $28,000.00 


Cost of conduit, 01,12 1 ft. at $5.30 per foot $482,941.00 

Extra for underpinning in marsh ground near wells. . 5,000.00 


Add 10 % for contingencies and incidentals 48,794.00 

Total §536.735-00 

Or in round numbers $537,000.00 


Cost of Alvarado pumping plant : 

' Marx 106,366.00 

Riffle 109,941.00 

Allardt 101,145.00 

City's J Hicks 106,399.00 

"Witnesses. ( Fish, 60.795 for machinen,- etc., 

28,000 for wells, added... 88,795.00 

Hall 115,483.00 

l^Millcr 115,531.00 


Average $106,237.00 

Water Co. 's (Adams $124,000.00 

Witnesses <Schuyler No estimate in detail. 

(Kiersted No estimate in detail. 

Average between City's witnesses and Water Company's wit- 
nesses, $115,1 18.00 — original cost approx. 

Add 30 % as increase in prices, average on whole, $34,535.40. 
$149,653.40, or in round numbers. $150,000.00. 
For two plants, each equal to the present Alvarado plant exclusive 

of real estate, $300,000.00. 

Note. — This is a liberal estimate, but I had no time to get 
present prices in detail. Machinery has made a great advance since 
the works were built and I assumed 30 % on the whole. 


Estimate for proposed Distributing (pipe) System in Oakland, 
of equal efficiency, as Combined Contra Costa and Oakland Water 
Companies, or for 13,000,000 gals per day 




Price per foot 

Total Cost 


in feet 

in cents 

$ 64,904.00 

Cast iron 

1 22,000 



1 i ti 





I < 1 ( 



1 13,907.00 


( ( it 





ti a 









Sheet- 1 2 gauge 





" 12 





" 10 " 





iS" Sheet lo gauge 2,700 169 $ 4,563.00 

20" " 8 " 10,400 203 21,112.00 

24" " 8 " 33.400 232. 77,488.00 

30* " 6 " 15.150 352 54,328.00 

373^" " 6 " 450 415.5 1.869.75 


Add 10%, Engineering and contingencies 88,!;o7.oo 


( 2,800 + 6,20o)=9,ooo services at -SS.oo 7 2,000.00 

260 single hydrants at $30.00 7,800.00 

70 double hydrants at $40.00 2,800.00 

Replacing McAdam pavements 20,000.00 

Cost of proposed distribution svstem complete 

exclusive of conduits $1,076,178.00 

Estimate based on cast iron for 3* pipe at $45.00 per ton, 
larger sizes, $40.50. 

Rivetted pipe 14" to 1 6* at $4.2; per lb. 

18" to 22* at 4.00 per lb. 
" " 24" to 30" at 3.75 per lb. 

" 37 'A" at 3 50 per lb. 

Note. — Above made for Water Rate Suit. Only the total of 
$1,076,178 is in evidence. The details were obtained bv writing to 
the witnesses, Prof. C. D. Marx and Mr. C. E. Moore, who used the 
same figures. The prices evidently cover cost of gates and specials, 
as estimate is marked complete. 


Prices of pipe, cast iron, per ton of 2,000 pounds. 
Quotations in December, 1902, f. o. b. S. F. 

Size Moore and C. Froelich N. B. Livermore W. W. Mont 

inches Marx in 1900 ( Forecast six ague & Co. 

mantlis ahead) 

3 $4500 43.00 

4 40.50 46.00 43.00 


6 40.50 45-00 43-00 45.00 

8 to 12 40.50 44.00 43.00 45.00 

The above differences approximate 10 % increase since 1900 
and as labor and other items of cost have also advanced, this per- 
centag** was added to the whole cost, and, for preliminary estimate 
is reasonably close. The cost of the pipe itself is far the largest 
item, ^ or more of the cost in place. 



Estimates of City distributing reservoirs of the Oakland Wate r 
Company were given by expert witnesses in the Water Rate Suit, 
and varied from $68,886 (Hicks) to $80,590 (Hall), exclusive of 
value of land. In my judgment it is unwise to omit having a large 
amount of storage inside the city limits, or nearby, not only in order 
to benefit fire service, but as a precaution against accident to the 
supply conduit. The item of $100,000 is assumed by comparison 
with the Oakland Water Company^'s system in this respect, adding 
about $25,000 for the cost of the real estate. 


The O. W. Co. and the old C. C. W. Co. together, according to 
the testimony, had only about $21,000 invested in these items in 
the city; but they both have supplies by gravity at elevations above 
the head likely to be maintained by the pumping system — econom- 
ically maintained — and therefore the high service pumps must be 
larger. Mr. Hicks used $27,000 for pumping stations_^alone injigoo. 


You will note that the estimate of Messrs. Moore and Marx pro- 
vides for 330 tire hydrants. The number in use in the City at pres- 
ent is 525, or 195 more. I have used the even number of 200 for 
the additional number to be provided. 

I am informed by the Fire Department that the cost to the 
City for installing new hydrants is, now, about $55.95 each. I have 
ascertained that those in use are now the property of the City and 
could be connected to its own mains if its works were built ; but no 
allowance has been made for this as the item is relatively small. A 
large number put in at one time by contract will cost much less than 
the price for single hydrants installed at intervals, and the price of 
$45.00, or 12J4 % increase over the price used by Prof. Marx for 
double nozzle patterns, is deemed ample. 


The number of services were estimated at 9,000 in the estimate 
of Messrs. Marx and Moore. The late census shows over 82,000 in- 
habitants and a rapid present growth. With the advent of a city 
supply it is probable that many people at present being supplied 
from their own wells will patronize the city works. For the pur- 
pose of an estimate therefore it seems to me that calculation for a 
service for every six people should be made, or, for 84,000 (allowing 
for increased population between now and the time when the works 
are likely to be completed) the number of 14,000 services, which 
would be 5,000 more than the original estimate. The price of $9.00 
\si2]/i% addition to that used by Messrs. Moore and Marx in 1900. 
Extra pipe and stock on hand, and small service mains. 


Provision should be made for 2" mains in outlying, sparsely 
settled regions of the city which were not provided for in the origi- 
nal estimates. 


In order to keep consumption down to anything like the 75 gal- 
lons per capita used by the city's experts in their computations, the 
supply must be metered, and entirely metered. This is, certainly, 
the most reasonable and equitable modeof charging for service, pro- 
vided it is done alike to all. 

The prices used are about 10 % greater than the costs given in 
the testimony by Prof. Marx. The proportion of sizes used in the 
estimate is an assumption. 


Only $20,000 was allowed for this in the original estimate. The 
printed report of the Superintendent of ^Streets in 1898 gave the 
mileage of streets in the city as follows : 

Macadamized 99.7 miles 

Bitumenized 4.74 miles 

Wooden blocks on concrete 0.7 

Partly macadamized 24.34 " 

Unimproved 105-36 

Total 234.84 miles 

Since 1898 new streets have been^opened and much paving 
done, but no report has been published. Allowing three miles per 
year for new macadamizing, and .31 miles for total additional bitu- 
men, gives 112 miles macadamized, 24 miles partly so and 5^ miles 
bitumen and wooden block pavement. The Los Angeles Board of 
Consulting Engineers used the following prices for repaving: 

Addedforniacadam Add for Asphalt Add for Asphalt 
for 6'^ c.i. pipe 5 cts per foot or on broken stone on concrete, {(2112 
1264.00 per mile ^1372 80 per mile, per mile. 

• < jj// '« «' $316.80 per mile. $1848 per mile. fei68 per mile. 

If we use these prices and make the assumption ist, that the 
average cost of repaving in the city will be the average of the above 
prices for the two sizes given, and 2d that half of the asphalt, or 
bitumen and wooden blocks are on concrete and half on broken 
stone, and 3d that the 24 miles partly macadamized will equal 20 
miles macadamized, and, 4th that the prices are sufficient to cover 
the cost in crossings, the total cost of repaving the pipe trenches 
will figure up to nearly $45,000 or $25,000 more than used in the 
estirriate by Messrs. Moore and Marx. 



It will be noted that the proposed pipe system of Messrs. Moore 
and Marx provides for sheet iron mains of 14" and larger diameter. 
These are cheaper but not so durable as cast iron and the latter is 
advisable in my judgment, even at the increased cost up to 24' 
diameter. These mains (14 "to 24* inclusive) aggregate 64,800 feet 
out of their total of 947,300 feet, and are estimated by them to cost 
$129,488.70. Adding their 10 % for contingencies and incidentals, 
and then 10% for increased prices this amounts to $156,681.32. 
For cast iron the cost of these mains would be, approximately as 
follows : 

4, 100 ft. of 1410. at ?2. 50 laid $ 10,250.00 

14,200" " 15 in. and 16 in, " 2.97 " 42,174.00 

2,700 " " 18 in. " 3.66 9.882 

10,400" " 20 in, " 4.14 43,056.00 

33,400" " ^4 in. " 5.58 • 186,372 00 

64,800 $291,734.00 
Add 10% for contingencies and incidentals 29,173.0) 

Total for cast iron $320,907.00 
Total for wrought sheet iron 156,681.00 

Extra cost of cast iron $164,226.00 


Estimate for a pumping plant, 13,000,000 gallons per day, sup- 
ply to be obtained from 1 34 miles south of Alvarado. Plant to be 
in duplicate for emergencies. Made by Lewis A. Hicks and used 
in testimony in Water Rate Suit in 1900. 

Water supply (wells, pumps and buildings. — A 

series of isolated small plants, electrically driven) $ 385,848 00 

Conduit — 2 lines of 30-in. pipe 491,072 00 

Distributing syitem, taken as twice Oakland Water 

Co.'s system 1,173,252 00 

High service pumping stations 27,000 00 

Reservoirs 104,860 00 

Shops and stock 118,93300 

Interest during construction 115,048 00 

Total $2,416,013 00 

Present prices would increase estimate about $250,000.00 
In the original estimate were the following items, not 
included in the above: 

Capitalization of high service pumping — added ... I 116,300 00 
Item — not noted in my notes, but probably an 
arithmetical correction 50,000 00 

$ 166,300 00 


Deterioration — deducted in original for purpose of 

;i54,742 CO 

Pipe System Contra Costa Co. 

ducting pipe taken up. — Exhibit Q 

1899, only in this sheet.) 

>^ in 30' ft- 

^ in 5.070 ft. 

1 in 30.561 ft. 

34.70f ft- 

lyi. in 49.297 ft. 

2 in 6 1 2,289 ft. 

3 in. cast 52, 1 19 ft. 

3 in. and 2,% *o tubes 15,362 ft. 

4 in. converse 10,149 ft. 

4 in. cast ... 154,722 ft. 

5 in. sheet unlincd.. 7,490 tt. 

5 in. sheet lined. . . . 85.284 ft. 

6 in. sheet 4>490 ft. 

6 in. cast 87,568 ft. 

6 in. converse 4.871 ft. 

7 in. sheet unlined. . 42,861ft. 

(old Company alone) after de- 
3 of Plaintiff. (Given for year 

7 in. sheet lined. . . $34,193 ft. 

8 in. cast 41 ,481 ft. 

8 in. converse. . . . 2,530 ft. 

9 in. sheet unlined 5,601 ft. 

10 in. cast 2,608 ft. 

15 in. sheet, unlined 941 ft. 

11 in. sheet, unlined 12,537 f'- 

12 in. cast 18,777 ft. 

13 in. sheet, unlined 6,555 ft. 

15 in. sheet, lined . . 39121ft. 

16 in. sheet 24,550 ft. 

22 in. sheet unlined 5,060 ft. 

24 in. „ 43.328 ft. 

37>^ in. sheet 30,744 ft. 

48 in. sheet 340 ft. 

12 in. converse 53 ft. 

Total 1,465,702 ft. 

Add Artesian Co. pipe 9,616 ft. 

279 ms. 2201 ft 1,475,321 ft. 

Add O. W. Co. pipe in ground 154 miles, 962 ft. 

Total 433 miles, 3,163 ft. 


(Testimony of A. S. Riffle, data supplied by Water Co.'s wit- 


Ya in. 


^ I 

'2 in. 

/2 in. 
3 in- 

yA in. 

Cast iron 

2,906 ft. 
4,396 ft. 

1 10 ft. 

180 ft. 

187,775 ft. 
3,800 ft. 

17.330 ft. 
13.725 ft. 

4 in. 

6 in. 

8 in. 
10 in. 
12 in. 

250,185 ft. 
94.275 ft. 
77.839 ft. 
4,280 ft. 
14,280 ft. 

Terra Cotta 12 in. 

200 ft. 



6 in. 6,980 ft. 

7 in. '.950 ft. 
9 in. 13,889 ft. 

10 in. 1,375 ft- 

12 in. 2,658 ft. 
14 in. 1,130 ft. 

16 in. 6,660 ft. 

20 in. 26, 153 tt. 

30 in. 91,121 ft. (conduit) 

12 in. 200 ft. 
16 in. 1200 ft. 
20 in. 1300 ft. 

2-in. and less diameter — O. W. Co 37.0 miles 

(Old) Contra Costa W. Co. system 13S.6 " 

Total 175 6 miles 

To the Honorable Citizens' Committee Investigating Municipal 
b-. Water Supply. ^ ^ 

Gentlemen: — 

Pursuant to your instructions (as per verbal directions from 
Mr. F. C. Turner, City Engineer) I have examined the transcript of 
the testimony offered in the case of C C. W. Co. vs. City of Oakland 
and respectfully report as follows relative to the questions which 
were under consideration. 

First — Contrary to my expectations I found no direct testi- 
mony relative to the adequacy of the existing combined pipe system 
of the C. C. W. Co. Prof. C D. Marx testified (page 4909) that the 
old C. C W. Co. pipe system is entirely insufficient for the needs of 

The question of adequacy of the pipe system was discussed at 
length by the Engineers for the City during their private confer- 
ences, but practically no reference in detail was made to it during 
the trial. 

The pipe schedule submitted in evidence by the Water Com- 
pany shows 277.5 miles of pipe (all told) of the old C. C W. Co. and 
156.3 miles laid by the O. W. Co. as per the following detail list: 



Chancter. O. W. Co. C. C. Co. 

Total Length. Total Leogth. 

gal. wrt. 301 
Ya, " 2,906 5,070 


1 gal. wrt. 4,396 30-561 
1% " no 34.701 
i}4 " 180 49.297 

2 black 187,785 612, 289 
2}4 tubes 3,800 

3 " 17.330 

O. W. Co. C. C. Co. 

Character Total Length Total Length 

3^ tubes 



3 cast 

5-. 119 

4 cast 



4 converse 

10, 149 

5 sheet No. 16 


5 sheet C. L. 


6 cast 



6 converse 


6 sheet 16 



7 sheet 16 



7 sheet C. L. 

34. '93 

8 converse 


8 cast 


41 ,48 1 

9 sheet 14 



ID sheet 14 


10 cast 



1 1 sheet 14 


1 2 terra cotta 


12 converse 


1 2 cast 



12 sheet 14 


13 sheet 14 


14 sheet 1 2 

1. 130 

15 sheet 12 


15 sheet C. L. 


16 sheet 12 



20 sheet 1 2 


22 sheet 9 


24 sheet 9 


30 sheet 10 


37 >^ 7 




16 wood 


20 wood 

1, 106 

825,290 1,465,554 

The writer in conjunction with a representative of the Water 
Co. made scale measurements of the pipe system from the Water 
Co. Maps inside the City Limits and found that the old C. C. Co. had 
atotal of 167.22 miles and the O. W. Co. 119. 31 miles. 
) Of the former, 85.74 miles is two inches and less in diameter, 
divided as follows : 


1 / 



in. pipe 

.... 8-73 miles 


in. pipe 

Total 85.74 miles 

And the O. W. Co. 23.64 miles of small pipe divided as foHows: 


pipe ... 











Total 23 64 miles 

This pipe is all included in the schedule of street mains. These 
figures did not go in as evidence but as previously stated were the 
result of agreed scaled measurement by A. L. Hewson for the Water 
Co. and the undersigned. 

It is thus seen that of the old C. C. W. Co. pipe system, inside 
the City Limits, 51 % is two inches and less in diameter and of the 
O. W. Co. pipe system 19 % is also. 

J. T. Fanning, C. E., a recognized authority on the subject, 
states that a 4-inch water main is required to supply one fire hose 

Six 2-inch pipes are necessary to equal one 4* pipe under pre- 
vailing conditions. From this data your Committee can draw your 
own conclusions as to the adequacy of the existing pipe system. 

Second — I also failed to find any direct testimony covering an 
estimate of the cost of a new distributing pipe system for Oakland 
(expressed in this particular language). 

Several of the Engineers for the City were asked, while upon 
the witness stand, what it would cost to construct a complete dis- 
tributing pipe system equivalent to the two existing pipe systems. 

1 C. E. Moore answered as follows (page 4995) $1 ,076, 17S 

2 C. D.Marx ,, ,, ,, (page 4895) 1,076,178 

3 Wm. Ham. Hall ,. ,, „ (page 6258) 1,006,291 

4 Riffle ,, ., ,, (page 5431) 1,193,620 

5 M.K.Miller ,, ., ,, (page 5555) 1,411,799 

While not in the evidence, the fact is these figures really were 
computed from and based upon plans for a new distributing pipe 
system. The Moore and Marx estimates do not include distrib- 
uting reservoirs or supply mains. This may be true also of the Riffle 
and Hall estimates. The Miller estimate does include distributing 
reservoirs and supply main 18 miles long. Prof. Marx and Mr. 
Moore worked together in the preparation of all of their estimates. 
The following detail list of their proposed "equivalent" pipe system 
was not given in evidence and has just been obtained from them — ^ 



By Prof. C. D. Marx and C. E. Moore. 

, 122,000 ft. 


$ 64,904 

4 in. ,, , 

. 458,000 ft. 



6 in. ,, ,, 

1 29,000 ft. 


1 13.907 

8 in. ,, , 

56,800 ft. 



lo in. ,, 

81,800 ft. 



12 in. ,, , 

19,300 ft. 



14 in. riv. sheet iron 

No. 12. 

4, 100 ft. 



isjn. , 

0. 12. 

5,ouu IL. 



16 in. ,, ,, ,, 

No. 10. 

9,200 ft. 

I • 60 


18 in. ,, ,, ,, 

No. 10. 

2,700 ft. 

I 69 


20 in. ,, 

No. 8 . 

. 10,400 ft. 

2 03 


24 in- .. 

No. 8. 

- 33-400 ft. 



3oi'i- f< 

No. 6. 

. 15,150 ft. 



iiy^ in- " 

450 ft. 





Add ro per cent, for 


Add for 9,000 services at $8 


" 260 single hydrants at $30 78,000 

" 70 double " at $40 2,800 

" repairs to pavements 20,000 

Total cost $1,076,178.00 

Prices based on riveted pipe 14 in. and 16 in. at 4^4^ cents per lb. 

18 " 22 " 4 
2+ in. to 30 " 3^ 

3734 in at3|i 

No allovi^ance made for distributing, reservoirs and supply- 

The Hall and Riffle "equivalent" pipe system details are not 

The Miller new pipe system was designed to furnish a popula- 
tion of 100,000 people at a per capita rate of 100 gallons per day. 
Also 20 fire hose streams in the central business part of the City. 

The pipe system and estimated cost is as follows : 

3 in. cast iron 

142,500 ft. 


% 62,700. 

4 in. cast iron 

457,900 ft. 



6 in. cast iron 

162,600 ft. 



8 in. cast iron 

86,100 ft. 



10 in. cast iron 

55,550 it. 



12 in. cast iron 

10,400 ft. 



i4 in. sheet iron No. 12 

9.950 ft. 



16 in. sheet iron No, 1 1 

3,600 ft. 



20 in. sheet iron No. 10 

4,800 ft. 



27 in. sheet iron No. 7 

4,400 ft. 



30 in. sheet iron No. 6 

9,000 ft. 



33 in. sheet iron No. 6 (supply 

main) 95,040 ft. 



% Distributing Reservoirs 



Cocks, gates and specials $ 54,838.40 
61 miles service connections 50,000. 
330 hydrants 80,800. 
Coniingencies 121.000. 

$1,41 1,799. 

Present prices for cast iron and sheet iron pipe are a trifle high- 
er than quotations made in August, 1900, upon which the Miller 
estimate was based. 

From the foregoing it may be stated that the cost of a complete 
distributing system for Oakland, including 18 miles of 33* supply 
main, can be constructed at the present time for $1,500,000 in round 

Relative to distributing reservoirs, the old C. C. Co. had but 
one (the Highland Park at 21st Avenue and East 30th Street) capac- 
ity, 1,500,000 gallons, elevation 216 feet. The O. W. Co. had five 
reservoirs, all but one of which (the Orange Street) were used essen- 
tially for storing water fr )m Piedmont tunnels. 

A new distributing system would not require more than twc 
distributing reservoirs located at high elevations and the cost of 
each would range from $15,000 to $20,000 according to size and de- 
sign. ( 

Third — Relative to the rate of consumption of water in Oak- 
land, the testimony shows that the engineers in the case all agreed 
substantially that 7 5 gallons per capita is a fair allowance under a 
metered system. The testimony on this point can be found as fol- 
lows : 















Engineers Allardt, Marx and Hicks also probably gave the 
same testimony but in the hasty examination of the transcript it 
was not observed. 

Engineers Moore and Marx each testified that the cost of 
installing 14,544 meters would be $225,000. 

As I have understood the wishe* of your Committee the fore- 
going includes the particular features of the testimony which you 
desired examined. 

. Yours truly, 
(Signed) M. K. Miller. 

December 27, 1902. 


December 27, 1902. M. K. Miller. (Report on C. C. Co.'s 
Pipe System, also on cost of an adequate Pipe System, daily con- 
sumption, etc.) \jt 


To the Honorable Citizens' Committee of Oakland, Investigating 

Municipal Water Supply. 
Gentlemen : — 

Pursuant to your verbal instructions I have made a superficial 
investigation of the water supply obtained for the ground within the 
area of this City and respectfully report relative thereto, as follows: 

A personal canvass of the entire City was made upon a bicycle 
and wherever a private water supply was in evidence a call was 
made at the premises and an effort made to secure the necessary 
information to fill the following prepared form: 

(Except during the latter part of the canvass where general 
information from well driller was substituted for details from occu- 
pants of premises.) 

1. Name of owner. 

2. Location. 

3. Elevation ground service. 

4. Elevation normal water plane. 

5. Elevation low water plane. 

6. Diameter of well. 

7. Depth of well. 

8. Number of water bearing substratas. 
Q. Depth and thickness of such stratas. 

10. Size and character of pump. 

11. Capacit}^ of tank. 

12. Kind and capacity of power. 

13. Daily average workin,e hour of pump. 

14. Quantitv pumped dailv. 

15. Number people supplied. 

16. Number buildings supplied. 

17. Daily ccnsumption per capita. 

18. When constructed. 

19. Quality of water. 

20. Cost of complete plant. 

In all cases a portion of this data could not be obtained. As 
a general rule no record of the many wells throughout the Citj' has 
been preserved. Dozens of people in the City are using water from 
wells of which they have no knowledge whatever beyond the fact 
that they enjoy an abundance of good water at all times. 

The well drillers themselves have kept no record of their opera- 
tions. They refer from memory, with apparent accuracy, however, 
to the essential details of almost any well they have respectively 
had charge of, and considerable information has been obtained from 
this source The result of the canvass is shown in the following 
summarized tabulation : 

1. Total number of private plants in city as per canvass. . 718 

2. Of which plants windmill power is used by 632 

3. Of which plants steam, electric or gas engine power is 

used by 63 

Of which plants haud or dog power is used by 23 

4. Probable number of buildings supplied by private plants .1436 

5. Probable number of people supplied by private plants. . .7180 


6. Probable quantity of water produced by private plants per day 

(based upon rate of loo gals, per capita) 718,000 

7. Probable total cost of private water plants $306,200 

8. Total capacity of existing tankage of private plants . 3,467 ,000 

9. Maximum and minimum depth of wells. .681 ft. and 18 ft. 

10. General average depth of wells about loo ft. 

1 1 . Number of private wells constructed since Jan. 1900 240 

12. Probable number of wells omitted from count by oversight.. .50 

13. Probable percentage of total population supplied from private 

wells (approx.^ 10 % 

14. Value of water from private plants, per annum, as per present 

meter rates 8115,310.80 

15. Annual loss to water Co., 5 % interest on $2,306,200 

A glance at the map accompanying this report, upon which is 
ghown the approx.imate location of the wells included in the canvass 
indicates that water in considerable quantities is obtained from the 
sub-surface sands and gravels, throughout nearly the entire area of 
Oakland, which comprises some 18.8 square miles equals 12.032 
acres. It is less abundant upon the higher lands north of Lake 
Merritt and in East Oakland than upon the lower land? nearer the 

The geological structure of this locality is of Pliocene charac- 
ter. These upper tertiary deposits consist of clay, sands and grav- 
els in alternating layers, extending to a depth of several hundred 
feet along the Bay shore. The sand and gravel sub-stratas are in- 
variably water bearing and seem to extend throughout the area 
under consideration, broken more or less by the undulating clay 
formations. It follows therefore, that there is no regularity in the 
depth of existing wells or in the depth and thickness of the water 
bearing sub-stratas. 

The surface formation throughout that portion of the City 
•south of about Twentieth street, between Lake Merritt and the Bay, 
consists of from 50 to 60 feet of fine sand which is saturated with 
water below an elevation about 10 feet under the surface. Scores 
of wells, from which water has been used for many years, draw their 
supply from this source. Immediately below this sand, impervious 
clay varying in tliickness is found followed by water bearing gravel, 
sand and clay in alternate stratas. North of Twentieth street the 
general character of the formation consists first of a few feet of adobe 
thence clav to a depth of about 20 or 25 feet at which depth water 
bearing gravel is found. This gravel strata is usually several feet 
in thickness and yields an abundance of water. At 45 or 50 feet 
another similar gravel strata is found. At greater depths the for- 
mation is alternating strata* of clay and gravel, the latter ranging 
from a few inches to several feet in thickness. 

In this portion of the City (between Twentieth and Thirty- 
sixth streets) wells 150 feet in depth are not uncommon, very few 
are deeper, one well at Gill's Nursery is said to be 281 feet deep and 
to have yielded nearly one million gallons per day when pumped by 
Mr. Dingee. 

At Alden, ten feet of coarse gravel is found at a depth of about 
^5 feet, yielding abundantly. At about 50 feet in depth another 


similar gravel strata is found. The wells in this locality are all 
shallow, probably one-fourth of this number extending only to the 
first gravel. In Golden Gate the same general characteristics pre- 
vail. The wells rango from i8 to 150 in depth. There appears to 
be no failures in attempting to obtain water any-.vhere in this 
portion of the city. 

In East Oakland on the lower levels, a clay formation extends 
from the surface to a depth of about 50 feec where several feet of 
water bearing gra\^el is found. At 90 feet, several feet additional 
of gravel is encountered. The stratification is not so uniform in 
this locality as west of Lake Merritt. Occasionally some difficulty 
is experienced in obtaining a satisfactory supply. Further east 
near t'he California Cotton Mills and extending quite indefinitely 
towards Fitch buri,', water is known to be abundant at various 
depths. At the Cotton Mil's, three thirteen-inch wells, 75 feet, 220 
feet and 300 feet in depth respectively ])roduce 5,000 and to. 000 
gallons per hour. Several feet of coarse gravel is found les; than 50 
feet from the surface in this general locality. Throughout Fruit- 
vale and Alameda and extending out to Fitchburg no trouble is 
experienced in obtaining water In abundance. No deep well bor- 
ings (comparatively speaking)have ever been made in Oakland, so 
far as I have learned. 

At the foot of Myrtle street upon the property now occupied by 
the Howard Company, many years ago two ten-inch wells were 
drilled to a depth of 554 and 681 feet respectively, and an abund- 
ance of good water obtained at this depth. 

In a few instances flowing (artesian) wells have been devel- 
oped. Near Seventh and Kirkham streets, such a well flowed for 
several years, also one flowed at the foot of "B" street. West Oak- 
land Marsh. Near the Cal. Cotton Mills, water now rises practic- 
ally to the ground surface and at Golden Gate three wells are flow- 
ing above the surface at the present time. A flowing well was also 
very recently developed near Fighth and Fallon streets. The gen- 
eral direction of the under ground flow (west of Lake Merritt) ap- 
pears to be from the northeast toward the southwest. Wherever 
this water may have its source the quality is uniformly pure and 
good and the quantity has never as yet been affected by drought or 
artificial draft, in a general sense. The water is clear and cool and 
somewhat hard, the effect of contact with lime formations. The 
indications certainly are that the flow is perennial in a very large 
measure. In some localities in the City water is especially abund- 
ant. This is true in the vicinity of Valley street, also at Twenty- 
sixth and Myrtle streets; also near Union and Fifth streets ; near the 
Golden Gate R. R. Station; throughout West Oakland, and in 
lower eastern part of East Oakland. At Alden water is also very 
plentiful at shallow depths. 

As a rule, water from shallow wells, particularly in large cities, 
is considered absolutely unsafe for domestic use. With this fact in 
mind, especial inquiry was made as to the health of the people using 
water from the numerous shallow wells which draw only from the. 
first stratum and in not one case were any ill effects reported . In 
many cases, it was stated, analysis had been made of the water as 


a precaution, and the quality, in all such instance'-', proved to be 
very satisfactory. 

As a rule bored wells are drilled to the second, third, or fourth 
gravel stratum and the flow from the first gravel c&sed off, together 
with all surface drainage. 

So far as I can learn, however, the quality of the water from the 
first gravel is quite as free from organic impurities asi from the lower 
streams, but the general opinion is that it is somewh.nt harder. 

In several instances it was reported that the de»,'ree of hard- 
ness of the water varied cor-;ir'erably fi om time to time. 

Without an exceptional case, the consumers express themselves 
as perfectly satisfied with their water supply and it was quite enter- 
taining to be informed, with remarkable frequency, that "I have 
the very best well of water in this City." 

"It is not by any means uncommon for shallow wells to inter- 
cept veins of water gathered on distant and higher water sheds and 
the water may have been subjected to natural purification before 
it reaches the well. In such cases, if all surface drainage is exclud- 
ed, the water may be of high quality and altogether safe." Cer- 
tainly all reports sustain the shallow wells as producing good, pure 
water and any natural prejudice against such wells, may in this 
instance be discarded. 

The largest private water plant in this City at present is owned 
by Mr. Sicoth at Eighth and Willow streets. He has a 12-inch 
well, 60 feet deep, 22,000 gallon tankage and now supplifes 25 houses. 

Among the larger private plants the laundries take the lead. 
They all have their own wells and each uses from 15,000 to 40,000 
gallons of water per day. 

Some speculation is no doubt appropriate, relative to the vol- 
ume of the under ground waters of this locality and of the reason- 
able possibilities of developing same. Of course, the superficial 
nature of this investigat'on renders any attempt at positive asser- 
tion inconsistent, but at the same time, by considering the facts as 
presented and by making comparisons with other cities which depend 
upon ground water supplies some crude general conclusions may 
be ventured. It should be observed, however, that it is perfectly 
feasible to determine with a fair degree of accuracy, the direction, 
velocity and volume of flow of the underground streams which feed 
the pervious sands and gravels underlying this locality. This would 
require a long series of observations and pumping tests including 
the boring of numerous test wells, all of which would consume at 
least one year's time and the expense would amount to several thou- 
sand dollars. 

The modem methods of prospecting for water give results 
which leave nothing further to be desired so far as proving the quan- 
tity available, for which reasons immature conclusions may well be 
suggested with much hesitancy. 

Referring to local experience with ground water supplies — we 
have first — the operations of Mr. Dingee within the City prior to 
coni entrating his plant at Alvarado. 

At 26th and Myrtle streets, Mr. Dingee drilled three wells 
upon a lot about 50 feet in width. The hydraulic gradient of these 


wells was but a few feet below the ground surface, and to facilitate 
pumping, a tunnel was excavated, connecting the wells, at an 
elevation of about 15 or 20 feet below the surface. This tunnel 
served as a reservoir or pump. At the same time I am informed, 
water was also obtained from the well about one block distant, 
upon the premises of Mr. Gill, the nurseryman. This latter well is 
said to be 281 feet deep and to have yielded upwards of one million 
gallons per day, being ef|ual in production to the other three wells. 
No exact data is available relative to the quantity of water pro- 
duced from this plant. One informant has stated that 600 houses 
were supplied but considering that one million gallons ])cr day will 
supply, at present rate of con-'mmption in Oakland, ( i ^o gallons per 
capita) about 7,000 people, the number of houses supplied must 
have been more nearly j ,400, allowing five persons to each family. 

Mr. Dingee also had a pumping plant drawing water from four 
wells near 5th and Union streets. These wells penetrated the fine 
waterbearing sand to a depth of 53 feet and are said to have yielded 
about 5,000 gallons per hour each, equal to 480,000 gallons per day. 
Water was also pumped by Mr. Dingee from a well in the vegetable 
garden at Fifteenth and Willow streets, but no information as to the 
volume has been obtained. In all these cases the water was pump- 
ed directly into tlie street mains. At either of these three points, 
the supply was not appreciably diminished, so far as has been ascer- 
tained. At Twenty-sixth and Myrtle streets the water plane was 
lowered for several hundred feet distant to the northeast from the 
pump, but I heard of no wells being exhausted. It is probably 
safe to assume that i V.j million gallons per day was produced from 
these three sources. T'.e second groundwater supply in the order 
nearest the City — is the Fitch burg plant, which until a few months 
ago, furnished Alameda almost exclusively. 

This plant comprises 72 lo-inch wells, ranging from 150 to 270 
feet in depth. They are spaced in two parallel rows, distant about 
50 by 150 feet apart, and cover all told less than 10 acres of ground, 
allowing a margin outside of each row. These wells supplied about 
14,000 people at the rate of about 75 gallons per capita, equal to 
1,050,000 gallons per day, for several years without showing any 
reported tendency to fail. 

At Roberts' Landing, several wells have been bored to a depth 
approximating 500 feet. Two or three of these wells are "arte- 
sian. " The City of Oakland made a test of one of these wells, by 
the air lift process, under writer's supervision, during the prepara- 
tion of the late water trial. The average daily flow was 578,000 

The Alvarado Works, originally owned by the O. W. Co., in- 
cluded 368 acres of land, upon which were bored 32 wells ranging 
in depth from 170 to 884 feet, the general average depth being 
350 feet. 

On thanksgiving Dav, November, 1894, the date of first deliv- 
ery of Alvarado water into Oakland, about 15 wells were in service. 
The adtiitional wells were bored during the succeeding years 95-96- 
97-1898 to meet the increasing patronage of that Company. 


The average daily supply from thc^e wells has been about 
million gallons. On July 15, 1897, 7,159,440 gallons were pumped. 
These Alvarado wells are placed irregularly, some are in groups, 
others a considerable distance apart. Adjacent to the 368 acie 
tract the original C. C. W. Co. purchased 12 acres of land and bored 
16 wells thereon, installed a pumping plant and an alleged effort to 
exhaust the Dingee wells was made, without success. It has been 
variously estimated that from two to three million gallons per day 
was pumped into the Bay. 

The Alvarado Sugar Works has five wells ranging from 350 to 
550 feet in depth from which during tlie working season, about 4 
million gallons per day are pumped. The foregoing constitutes the 
principal ground water supplies in this vicinity. These properties 
for the purposes of this discussion, simply call attention to the fact 
that a large quantity of water is obtained locally from compara- 
tively small areas of land, the geological and topographical features 
of which are quite similar to those of Oakland. The following tab- 
ulated statement will show the general character of the ground- 
water supplies in some 13 cities of prominence. 

The computed areas of land actually covered by the groups of 
wells, allowing twice the width between rows for margins seems 
remarkably small. Brooklyn has 765 wells divided into nine groups, 
ranging from 27 to 154 feet deep covering in the aggregate less than 
10 acres of ground. Lowell, Mass., has 340 wells divided into four 
groups upon less than seven acres of ground, in the aggregate. 

Fort Worth obtains its supply from 95 wells only 24 feet in 
depth . 

Columbus, Ohio, from 34 wells ranging from 75 to 80 feet deep. 

Memphis has 41 wells ranging from 260 to 480 feet in depth 
and Galveston 30 wells from 750 to 850 feet. 

At Leipsic, Germany, the water supply is taken from 324 shal- 
low wells. 

It may be stated that ground water supplies as a general thing 
are reasonably satisfactory and are not infrequently, among our 
towns and cities, the only available source. 

In some cases the wells are bored to great depth, from to 
3,000 feet. 


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It certainly is interesting to contemplate what the result would 
be if several groups ot wells were bored at widely separated points 
within the City at points where water is known to be comparatively 
abundant. The present acttial requirements of this city under a 
metered system upon a basis of 75 gallons per capita would be 
about six million gallons per day. 

It appears to be a ("act that an ordinary well in the best local- 
ities easily produces 5,000 gallons per hour, equal to 120,000 gallons 
per day. Upon this basis fifty wells would supply the City at the 
present time. At the East Oakland Cotton Mills, one well is now 
producing 10,000 gallons per hour. Mr. Gill claims his well pro- 
duced one million gallons per day, equal to 4 1 ,000 gallons per hour 
It is very much to be regretted that no data from actual pumping 
tests of the most productive wells is available. The operations of 
Mr. Dingee appear to include all experimental work of this charac- 
ter. In one instance, it is reported that his pumping plant exhaust- 
ed the water supply, at a point in Alden about half way between 
Telegraph avenue and Broa Iway on Forty-ninth street. At the 
other point5 where p im mv^ plants were established, no shortage of 
water was experienced, so far as I have learned. 

The area of Oaklind is about 18. 8 square miles, equal to 12,032 
acres. Cutting off all that po'tion east of Cemetery Creek and 
north of E ist Twenty-second street as non water pro lucing. leaves 
about 20,000 acrei of proven water bearing territory. If we assume 
that the aggregate average depth of the saturated sands and 
gravels throughout this area is only ten feet an^ the void one-sixth 
of the volume we have in storage 5,445 millon gallons of water, 
which would require 2}^ years to e.xhaust at the rate of six million 
per dav, without allowing for any inflow whatever The field is not 
restricte to the limits o Oakland, however,' As previously state ' 
the Fruitvale and Fitchburg localities yield abundant water and 
along the Bay shore north of Berkeley is said to be also a promising 
field for ground supply. In view of the foregoing statements, 
it appears reasonable to a; ume that sufficient water to meet the 
present actual needs of 100,000 population, could be developed 
locally. It may be remarked that the first cost of a local ground 
water supply would be the minimum. The cost of operating sepa- 
rate puTiping plants, now that cheap fuel or electric power is avail- 
able is much less than formerly and is not seriously objectionable. 
In connection with such a project no investment need be made, be- 
yon i the cost of drilling and testing wells, in advance of proving 
the sufficiency of the supply. 

The following tabula':ion will show the elevation of the water 
plane relative to high tide line, and the ground surface at various 
points in the City. The selections were taken at random from the 
notebooks. As a rule the data was given off hand by the occupants 
of premises and it can not be considered accurate. The elevations 
relative to high tide were computed from the official street grade 
elevations. The water table is affected slightly by the tides, and is, 
of course, affected locally at individual wells according to the draft, 
to certain limits, dependent upon the rate of inflow. 


Normal Eleva- Normal Eleva. 

Location of Well. Depth tf Well. Hon of Water tion of Water 

Below burlace Relailveto 

ot Ground. High Tid-. 

22nd and Broadway 73.0 9.0 0.0 

Web. & Hawthorne. .. . 160.0 61.0 I4 oabove 

36 & Market 50.0 lo.o 25.0 " 

25 & Telegraph Ave... 600 90 13.0 " 

34 & Elm 39.0 20.0 32.0 " 

36 & 'irove 115 15.0 38.0 " 

36 & Chestnut 27.0 10. o 19.0 " 

20 & Brush. 404.0 20.0 0.0 " 

29 & West 130.0 40.0 lo.obelow 

3 & Harrison 121. o 20.0 9.0 ,, 

6 & Alice ... 60.0 8.C ii.o above 

8 & Jackson 190.0 30.0 2.5 btlow 

I & Linden 250.0 22.0 18.0 below 

7 & Filbert 60.0 ...... 10. o 6.5 above 

7 & Kirkham 60.0 to o 0.0 

13 & Kirkham 60.0 10. o 4.6 above 

14 & Peralta 114.0 7.0 2.5 " 

14 & Bru-h 28.0 14.0 14.0 " 

5 & Peralta 48.0 8.0 2.5 below 

20 & Myrtle 69.0 9.0 0.0 

13 & Willow 160.0 ...... 8.0 0.0 

21 & San Pablo Ave. 115. o 30.0 13.0 below 

50 & Myrtle 30.0 14.0 9.0 above 

Isabella, Mkt — S.P.Ave 125.0 14.0 0.0 

26 & Filbert 33.0 11. o 3.0 be'ow 

A& Ettie 185.0 4.0 2.0 " 

8 Ave. & E. 22nd 70.0 24.0 48.0 above 

Cotton Mills 10. o 7.0 3.0 

45 & Cherry 195.0 14.0 

Niles & Maple 41.0 18.0 

57th & S. P. Ave 150.0 flowing 

61 & Idaho 30.0 15.0 

In conclusion it is proper to say that the number of private 
wells in this city is rapidly increasing. Several corps of well drillers 
are constantly at work. Probably one hundred wells per year is not 
an over estimate of the rate of. increase at the present time. The 
estimated number of families supplied from private wells is based 
upon a general average of two families per well. This data was 
given reluctantly and in the majority of cases was not obtained. 
The actual figures show a higher average, but I am convinced the 
ra te allowed is conservative. The population supplied was com- 
puted upon the basis of five persons to each family. 

It should not be inferred from the foregoing that it is consid- 
ered desirable to undertake to develop sufficient water, from local 
sources to meet the increasing demands of this rapidly growing city. 

The possibilities of development certainly are restricted. 


It does seem probable, however, that sufficient water to serve 
all requirements at present and a few years to come, under conserv- 
ative regulations, can easily be obtained right at home if no other 
supply is more available. 

Respectfully submitted, 

M. K. Miller, 

Civil Engineer 

(Received Nov. 15, 1902.) 



Construction ^s^Iron 'Pipe Line 


Spring Valley Water Woi^ks 
JULY 1 2th, 1887 



Construction of an Iron Pipe Line 




■ 1 



General Description. 

The proposed conduit to connect the Spring Valley Water Works 
stone aqueduct at a point about i ^ miles above Vallejo's Mill, on the 
Alameda Creek, Alameda County, with the 44 in. Crystal Springs 
pipe at or near the point where the same enters the county road about 
1^ miles northerly from San Mateo. 

The total length of this conduit is 146,000 feet, and consists of 
139,400 feet of 36 in. wrought iron pipe and 6600 feet of submarine 
ball-joint pipe. 

The conduit is distributed as follows: Starting from the above 
mentioned stone aqueduct on Alameda Creek, and generally follow- 
ing the line of the present old Vallejo's Mills flume; thence past Val- 
lejo's Mill across Alameda Creek on a bridge (above high water) ; 
thence following in a southeasterly direction along the public road, 
through the towns of Centerville and Newark ; thence along the rail- 
road right of way, through the salt marsh on a pile trestle to Dum 
barton Point (crossing a navigable slough, 300 feet wide, with sub- 
marine pipe on the way); thence across the Bay of San Francisco in 
a southwesterly direction and in a straight line 6300 feet, more or 
less, of submarine pipe to the westerly shore of the bay. 

At this point the 36 in. pipe commences again, and runs first along 
a pile trestle, about 2000 feet long, through the marsh and in a 
southwesterly direction to the public road ; thence along said public 
and county roads through Menlo Park, Redwood City, Belmont and 
San Mateo to the above junction with the 44 in. Crystal Springs pipe. 

• The sizes of pipe, thickness and character of the metal over the 
above route are described as follows: Beginning at the eastern or 
inlet end of the aqueduct and going toward its northwesterly end 
or outlet: 

I — 35.700 feet 36 in. pipe, No. 9, iron in ditch. 
(If No. 'i an.i I c 2—19,000 " 35 in. " " 7, to the sloufrh. 

• Lout n.OOO feet ^ " . . . " 

un trcsiks through -",3 — 300 Submarine pipe, dimensions Stated hereafter. 

marsh, and 0,700 

feet In ditch. ^4 — 7,7oo 36 in. pipe No. 7, to Dumbarton Point. 

5 — 6,300 " submarine pipe across the Bay of San Francisco, 

dimensions stated hereafter. 

6— 2,000 " 36 in. pipe No. 7, through marsh on trestles. 

7— 75.000 " 36 in. " " 9, laid in ditch. 

— 4 — 


Specifications for the Manufacture of 139,400 feet of 
Wrought Iron Pipe of a clear diameter of 36 in. 

The following are the specifications for the manufacture of the 
iron and rivets to be used in the construction of this 36 in. pipe, the 
materials described therein to be furnished by and at the expense of 
the Spring Valley Water Works, and to be delivered on the sidewalk 
in front of the place of manufacture. 

Specifications for the Manufacture of Iron Plates. 










Size of 



S<ir. Ft. 


No. of 
Sqr. Ft. 






















232. S75 





















Each plate to be sheared perfectly true to the above dimensions 
given in the third column, the sides and ends being straight and 
rectangular with each other. 

The weight of each plaie not to fall below 6 *„ nor above (> lbs. 
for No. 9, and not below 7 nor above 7 ,0 lbs. for No. 7, per square 
foot. The weight given in column 5, representing the average weight 
required. Each plate being perfectly fiat, smooth and even and free 
from warping, buckling, splits, flaws, rust, and all other deftcts. The 
tensile strength of the iron to be not less than 50,000 lbs. per square 
inch, and the elastic limit to be not less than 40 per cent, of the 

The iron must be of American manufacture, close-grained, tough 
and thoroughly pliable, allowing cold scarfing to a fine edge at the 
laps without splitting or cracking, and not to crack between the rivet 
holes, nor between the holes and the edge of the plate while being 

All plates exhibiting a hard and brittle character, and that do not 
in every way meet the above retiuirements, will be rejected. 

— 5 — 

Specifications for the Manufacture of Rivets. — The Dimensions Given 
in the Following List to be Strictly Adhered to: 

Rivets for No. 9 Ikon. 

Rivets for No. 7 Iron. 

— 6 — 

The rivets to be of or equal to the brand known as " Burden 

To be made of the best kind of American iron; the iron being 
soft, pliable and thoroughly malleable; the rivets being free from 
splits and cracks, rust or any other defects. 

'I"he iron of which the rivets are manufactured to have a tensile 
strength of not less than 50,000 lbs. per square inch, its elastic limit 
to be not less than 40 per cent, of the above. 

.Ml rivets not up to the above recjuirements will be rejected. 

The i^lates to be delivered at the rate of 1000 tons per month, 
commencing August ist, 1887. The rivets at the rate of 600 kegs 
per month. 

Manufacture of Pipe. 

During the process of manufacture of the pipe, all the plates 
and rivets delivered to the contractor must be kept under roof and 
cover by him, and in no \va) exposed to rain or fogs. 

The pipe to consist of large and small straight courses. The sheets 
for the large and small courses, both for Nos. 9 and 7, are to be 
trimmed to the exact size given, with the opposite sides parallel to 
each other, and the corners rectangular. 

The sheets for the small courses to be so trimmed that, when 
punched and riveted mto courses, they form a tight fit into the large 

The rivet holes are to be punched according to the dimensions 
given in the following table: 

No. of 

Distance cen- 
ter to canter in 

each row of 
straight aeams, 

Distance cen- 
ter to centre 

between 2 nuvs 
of straight 

seams, inches. 

center to 
center roviml 

center of 
seam to edpe 
of sheet, 







1 .0 







i" ' 

T8 ' 

Where at the end of each course tliC lap falls between two thick- 
nesses of iron, the sheets must be drawn to a fine edge, through which 
edge upon riveting the courses together, one of the rivets, of the round 
seam, must be driven to insure absolute tightness. 

Each plate must be rolled to a perfect cylinder of the rerjuired 

All riveting in the shop must be done with cold rivets and by hydraulic, 
machinery, exerting a slow pressure of not less than 20,000 lbs. on each 
rivet head. Prior to driving the rivet the plates must be [)ressed 
together by a squeeze from the same machine. The head of the rivet 
on the inside and outside of the pipe to be formed by a cup in the 
die, and the inside rivet head to receive as nearly as possible the shape 
of the original head, while for the outside the head is to retain its 
original dimensions as near as possible. 

At each junction of the straight seam and round seam, where three 
thicknesses of iron come together, the lap rivets as provided in the 
above list are to be used. 

The straight seams to be all on one side of each length of [)ipe, al- 
ternating to the right and left not more than one foot. 

The pipe to be manufactured in lengths of eight courses each, in 
large and small straight courses, so that each length has a large course 
on one end and a small course on the other end. 

If the Spring Valley Water Works should wish to somewhat alter 
the number of courses to each length the contractor must comply 
with it; such alteration not to exceed two courses either way. 

Both ends of each length having the regular round seam rivet 

All round and straight seams to be thoroughly split and caulked in 
first-class boiler work fashion, while for a distance of four inches from 
all laps the seams are to be chipped and caulked. 

The Spring Valley Water Works' agent to have the right to test any 
of the lengths. - 

The pipe must be absolutely tight, without asphaltum coating, un- 
der a pressure of 125 lbs. per square inch. 

All the work of punching, riveting, caulking, etc., to be done with 
the very best of workmanship, so as to insure strength and absolute 

The Spring Valley Water Works to dip the pipe in asphaltum 
coating at their own expense at or in the immediate proximity of the 
shop where the pipe is manufactured. 

The contractor to furnish to the Spring Valley Water Works, free 
of cost to them, sufficient room for them to erect their boiling kettles 
and dipping troughs, derrick, etc., and also a sufficient space for the 
storing of the pipe so dipped prior to its transportation. 

- 8 — 

Transporting the Pipe. 

The contractor is to transport the j)ipe from its place of storage 
where it was deposited after having been dipped, to and along the 
line above outlined. 

The pipe to be carefully loaded on teams, cars or vessels not 
more than two tiers high (unless by sjjecial consent of the Spring Valley 
Water Works) with skids and blocking and straw sacks in between, 
so that the coating is not chafed or rubbed off. Great care being 
taken in unloading the pipe at the point of destination ; here the 
pipe to be carefully unloaded, lowering the same to the ground slowly 
over skids with ropes and on sacks filled with straw. Special care 
being taken that the pipe does not come in contact with salt water 
during its transportation, and after it has been deposited on the 
ground; wherever the pipe has to be deposited on the salt marsh, 
this must either be done on the old railroad embankment or on 
wooden blocking, so as to keep it above high water. When the pipe 
has been deposited alongside of the ditch or trestle-work, the top of 
the same to be covered by either plank or straw and loose earth 
thrown over it, to keep the sun from melting off the asphaltum. 


Excavating the Ditch. 

The ditch to be excavated for the entire length along the line indi- 
cated above, exce{)t at the bridge crossing near Vallejo's Mill, and 
except the crossing of the salt marshes, the slough and the Ray of 
San Francisco, and the crossings of various creeks and other minor 
depressions which will be crossed by bridges. 

The ditch shall be excavated to a width of 5 ft. 6 in. on top, 4 ft. 
6 in. on the bottom, and to a depth of 5 ft. 6 in. 

These being the dimensions of the ditch from the neighborhood 
of Vallejo's Mill to Centerville, and from the westerly end of the tres- 
tle near Ravenswood to the point of junction with the 44 in. pipe 
near San Mateo. 

The ground at the upper end of the conduit between the stone 
aqueduct and Vallejo's Mill being slightly uneven, the above dimen- 
sions cannot be strictly adhered to, except regarding the width of the 

In this case the ditch is to he dug to a grea'.er or less depth as 
directed by the Spring Valley Water Works' engineer, and for any 
extra cutting over the abo%'e regulation size the contractor to be paid 
per cubic yard; as also where the cutting is less than the above size, 
an allowance to be made to the Company (Spring Valley Water 

Where the line of the pipe crosses adobe soil or such soil as in the 
opinion of the Si:)ring Valley Water Works' engineer contains a pro- 
portion of adobe, as appears from Centerville to the salt marsh, and 
particularly from a point about a mile east of Newark to the salt 
marsh, the ditch is to be dug of the following dimensions : Width on 
top, 5 ft.; depth, 5 ft. 8 in.; width at a point 3 ft. 6 in. from the sur- 
face or 2 ft. 2 in. above the bottom, 4 ft. 6 in. 

The ditch below this point to be excavated to the bottom to an 
even curve of a radius of about 2 ft. 3 in. 

The ditch to be kept free from land slides, or other debris; to be 
dug straight, excejit on the few curved portions, where the curve must 
be uniform ; the sides, and particularly the bottom, to be dug straight, 
uniform and even to a perfect grade (grade to be given by the Spring 
Valley Water Works' engineer), so that the pipe has an even bearing 
on the bottom over its entire length. 

Wherever the ditch is dug through private property, the top or 
surface soil to be placed on the bank of the ditch by itself and not 
mixed with the rest. 

All excavated materials to be kept not less than two feet from the 
edge of the bank of the ditch. 


Construction of Trestle Works. 

The piles to be used for the foundation must be driven two abreast 
and four feet from center to center and fourteen feet one inch apart 
longitundinally from center to center. They must be driven perpen- 
dicularly, and until in the opinion of the Spring Valley Water Works' 
engineer they reach firm and solid foundation; their maximum depth 
not to exceed 30 ft. below the bottom of the cap. The exact levels 
at which the piles are to be cut off to be given by the Spring Valley 
Water Works' engineer, but shall not be more than ft. below the 
surface of the marsh, and will average about i ft. below the same. 
A frame to be constructed on the top of each set of two piles in the 

— lO — 

manner shown in the accompanying plan. The sill of each frame to 
be bolted to each pile by a drift bolt 24 in. in length and i in. in 
diameter (the bolts being the same as used by the State Harbor Com- 
missioners for wharf building in San Francisco), driven through the 
cap and into the center of each pile— the holes for such drift bolts to 
be bored of a somewhat smaller diameter than the bolts, so that the 
bolts will fit firmly in them. 

The longitudinal stringers to be bolted to the upi)er caps by i in. 
bolts with threads, nuts and washers — while the upper cap and lower 
sill are to be fastened to the two uprights of each trestle by four 6 in. 
spikes and by two iron dogs 12 in. long of J4 in. iron driven 4 in. and 
.set diagonally and in opposite direction at each junction of the uprights 
with cap and bottom sill. 

The frame for covering the pipe shall be constructed as shown in 

Piles to have a diameter at upper end, clear of bark, of not less 
than 1 2 in., and at the lower end not less than 8 in. 

All piles, showing rot, splits or other defects, will be rejected. 

Neither the longitudinal stringers nor the frame over the pipe shall 
be placed and fastened in position until after the pipe is laid upon 
the bents. 

12 d. nails 4 in. apart to be used for nailing the outer planks on 
the 4 in. X 4 in. frame, 60 d. nails to be used in spiking frame to 
stringers and top cap and cross braces on frame. 

The workmanship and materials and quality of construction to be 
in all particulars the same as shown in the construction of the pipe 
trestle crossing the San Bruno marsh. 

The sill, uprights and diagonal braces and outside boarding to be 
of first-class, sound, well seasoned redwood, while the top cap, 
stringers, floor planking and frame scantlings are to be of first class, 
sound, well-seasoned jjine. 

The longitudinal stringers to be bolted on and the frame and the 
to]) covering to be put on immediately after the pipe is put in posi- 
tion and riveted, in order to prevent the e.\pansion and contraction 
of the i)ipe from breaking down the trestles. 

The box and trestle works to be painted with a heavy coal of 
brown fire-proof paint, as used by the railroad companies. 

The Spring Valley Water Works will construct at their own ex- 
pense the bridges necessary for crossing Alameda Creek at Niles 
Station, and also the bridge crossings on the west side of the Hay 
and at San Mateo Creek. 

— II — 


Laying of the Pipe. 

The necessnry joint holes to be dug by and at the expense of 
the contractor, and of such width and depth as are necessary for 
the proper driving of the rivets and splitting and chipping and 
caulking and painting of the joints. 

'I'he lengths of pipe to be so placed in the ditch that the rivet 
holes in the small course at one end of each length are accuratt-ly 
ojjposite to the corresponding rivet holes in the large end course of 
the next \)\pe. 

In the few bends in the pipe line the pipes are to be put together 
by butt and strap joints, which straps are to be of the same number 
and quality of iron as the pipe, but not to be more than six inches 
in width in their widest part. In placing the pipe in the ditch the 
straight seams to be placed at the bottom. Before the lengths are 
fitted and riveted together, the ends of each length are to be care- 
fully scraped and entirely cleaned of the asphaltum coating for a 
distance of 3 inches from each end, both in and outside of the pipe, 
so that the joint makes a perfect union of iron to iron. The rivet 
holes to be reamed out so as to be perfectly free from asjihaltum. 
The seams of these joints to be riveted with hot rivets, the rivets 
forming a good substantial head, both in and outside of the pipe, of 
a sha])e and proportion similar to that in the other seajns, care being 
taken that a rivet is placed through the scarfed edges of the sheet at 
all the laps, for which laps the lajj-rivets are to be used as specified 
for the pipe. Where the curvature of the pipes is so great that the 
above strap joints are insufficient to make the pipe follow such curves, 
the same is to be accomplished by inserting one or more single 
courses, or such single courses intermingled with lengths of pipe. 
The strap joint necessary for this purpose to be constructed the same 
as specified above. The contractor to furnish manholes, blow-offs, 
blow off gates and air valves of such dimensions as specified in the 
accompanying drawings. He to connect them with the pipe in 
such places as the Spring Valley Water Works' agent directs. Each 
one of the above being provided with a wrought-iron ring ij in. x 3 m. 
on the inside, the hot rivets passing through it and the iron of the 
pipe and the flange of the respective attachment. Only hot rivets 
being used for this purpose, and the edge of the plate to be chipped 

and caulked against the inside face of the costing, the rivet-joints as 
well as the apparatus so attached to be perfectly water tight. 

The contractor to bid separately for the man-holes, air valves, blow- 
offs and blow-off gates by the piece, put on the pipe and in complete 
working order. He also to put over each one of the above fittings a 
square box made of 2-in. redwood plank, with 4 in. x 4 in scantling 
in the corners, with cover of same material. 

For the man-holes the boxes being 4 ft. x 4 ft. outside measure- 
ment, and for the blow-off gate and air-valve to be 3 ft. x 3 ft. outside 

The lower edge of the fore and aft side of the box to be cut out 
with the curve of the pi[)e so as to rest on the same. 

In those portions of the ditch which pass through the adobe region 
as before mentioned, the ditch to be evenly filled to a de])th of 4 in. 
above the curved bottom with sandy, clayey or fine gravelly material 
prior to placing the pipe in the ditch. 

The rest of the ditch in this adobe region, up to within one foot of 
the top of the pipe and then curving over the top of the same to the 
thickness of not less than 4 in. on the top, to be of the same material 
as above specified for the bottom of the pipe. 

The balance of the ditch and heaping to a rounding of say i ft. 
above the ground (except in road crossings, where the crowning 
should not exceed 6 in.) to be filled with the material that was exca- 
vated out of the ditch. 

In such portions where the line crosses private ])roperty, the lower 
materials to be put in first, and the excavated loam to be put in last. 

For the entire length of the ditch, whether in adobe or other soil, 
the material is to be packed tightly with short sticks first, and after- 
wards with ordinary rammers under, alongside, and on top of the 
jjipe; no water being used for packing said dirt, except with special 
consent of the Spring Valley Water Works' engineer. 

The moment a length of pipe is placed into the ditch, and after 
the two round-end seams have been fastened together with tap bolts, 
the filling of the ditch in the above careful manner to commence and 
to be carried on until the toj) of the jiipe is covered 4 in. deep and 
thereby removed from the influences of the sun. 

After the round seam has been properly riveted, chipped and 
caulked at laps, and split and caulked in the best boiler work fashion 
for the balance of the round seam, and after the Spring Valley Water 
Works' agent has passed upon the work, then the Spring Valley Water 

Works, at their own ex[)ense, to paint this riveted joint in and outside 
of the pipe. 

Thereafter the filling and ramming of the balance of the ditch pro- 
ceeds until the filling is completed as above described. 


Submarine Pipes. 

The submarine or ball-joint pipe consists of two separate sections. 
One section having a length of 300 ft., crossing a navigable slough 
about miles northeasterly from Dumbarton Point; the other and 
main section crossing the narrow neck of the Bay of San Francisco 
in a southwesterly direction from Dumbarton Point, having a length 
of about 6300 ft. On fully one-half of this crossing the water is very 
shallow, while on the remainder — in the so-called channel — the water 
gradually deepens from 2 fathoms below tide down to 8 fathoms; the 
deepest channel, of about 8 fathoms, being about 1000 ft. from the 
Dumbarton shore. (See profile of bay). 

The contractor is required to bid on the following: 

1st. To furnish and lay these two sections of submarine pipes, 
viz: 300 ft. and 6300 ft., or a total of 6600 ft., by a double line of 
cast iron. Ward patent ball-joint pipe, 16 in. in the clear diameter, 
requiring a total length of 13,200 ft. This pipe to weigh 180 lbs. 
to the running foot, the meial in the body of the pipe being i in. 
thick, while the bell and nipple ends are proportioned as shown in the 
accompanying drawing. 

Each joint, when finished, to have a flexibility of 20 degrees. The 
cast iron must be the best quality of soft grey, close-grained iron. 
The pipe to be cast on end of even thickness and smoothness through- 
out, and true to the dimensions given in the drawing. 

The bell being turned out to an absolutely perfect smooth, concave 
sphere, and the end of the nipple being turned and beveled to fit 
tightly against the inner bevel of the bell. 

The pipes to be thoroughly coated in asphaltum, in and outside, 
except the inside of the bell, to be entirely free from spilts, flaws, 
blow-holes or any other defect. 

Great care being exercised in handling these pipes, always lowering 
them slowly with ropes on straw sacks and sticks of wood between it 
and the next pipe, to prevent iron from striking iron. 

— 14 — 

'I'he contractor to test every length of pipe, in presence of the 
agent of the Spring Valley Water Works, after the pipe has been de- 
livered on the pipe laying barge, to a pressure of 200 lbs. to the square 
inch; and any pipa shows splits, fl.nvs, leaks or other defects, will 
be rejected. 

One end of the i)i[)e-la)ing barge to have an apron attached, 
mounted with two steel rails set the proper distance a])art, so that 
the bells of the jjipe slide down on the same. The ajjron also to 
have a heavy timber guard, not less than 16 in. high, and the upper 
inner edge mounted with angle iron, so that in case of rough weather 
the pipe, if it should tend to leave the rails, cannot get outside of 
this chute. The angle of this apron with the horizontal not to ex- 
ceed 30 degrees. 'I'he lower end or siioe of the apron to be flattened 
out to a smooth, long, rounding shoe, so as to slide along smoothly 
and not to jjIow too dee[) a furrow into the bottom of the bay. 'I hc 
apron should not be less than 12 ft. in width, properly braced diag- 
onally against side vibration, planked with 3 in. plank, and properly 
strengthened on the two outer edges by timber or iron trusses, so as 
to make the entire" structure rigid and amjjly strong for the purpose 
intended. The up[)er end of the incline ajiron to project on the 
same incline above the deck of the barge to a height sufficient to 
show not less than 30 ft. (measured along the incline) above the sur- 
face of the water. The apron where it strikes the edge of the barge 
to be so fastened to the same that in rough weather it has ample play 
to let the lower iron-mounted side of the apron play and slide on 
heavy iron rolls, firmly fixed near the edge of the scow, but the apron 
so fastened with double extra heavy wrought iron chains and extra 
safety chains, that the a[)ron has sufficient up and down and side 
play in case of rough weather. 

As the crucible steel wire cable which is used for lowering the 
pipe passes over a heavy grooved pulley fixed on the upjier project- 
ing end, and is the center line of the apron, the up and down move- 
ment of the barge will not interfere with the steady lowering of 
the pipe. 

The bell end of the pipe (being upwards) is fastened to the apron 
by strong chains and chain tackle, and by an extra safety chain with 
plenty of slack, fastened to the barge. 

The next pipe is hoisted uj) on to the rails with bell up; then fas- 
tened to the lowering hook. Then a strip of clay putty is ])ressed on 
the inner and lower edge of the bell in w hich the joint is to be made. 

— 15 — 

The bell is wiped out clean with a greased rag; the upper pipe is 
carefully entered, and by its own weight and on extra prying the lower 
bevelled end of the nipple is pressed tightly into the above clay 
packing in the lower end of the bell (so as to make it absolutely tight 
against lead leakage) ; then the clay sausage is packed tightly around 
the entered pipe and against the face of the bell, building up a clay 
reservoir on top for receiving the hot lead and allowing the gases to 

The lead pot is hoisted up (the lead being heated to a yellow straw- 
color and slag removed); a little tallow is put into the clay reservoir 
for flux and the lead is poured in with a steady stream until the 
entire joint is filled. When the lead is hardened, the clay is removed, 
the big projections of the lead cut off and the lead joint properly 
caulked home, so as to show a square, solid, smooth face. The low- 
ering cable is now brought up tight, the safety catch fastened back of 
the upper bell, the lower chain tackle slacked and unhooked, and at 
the same ratio as the barge is slowly and steadily pulled ahead (in a 
straight line), the pipe is allowed to .slide along the rails of apron. 
A sufficient strain is meanwhile kept on the lowering cable, so that 
none of the joints on the lower and suspended portion of the pipe 
deflect more than ten degrees, so that only from three to four pipes at 
most, where they leave the lower portion of the apron, are suspended 
at any given time. 

The windlass pulling the barge ahead on a steel cable of ample 
strength stretched across the bay, from shore to shore, which is 
weighted at intervals, so as to remain on the bottom and not inter- 
fere with navigation. During the entire process of laying the pijje, 
the barge is kept in its perfectly straight line and uninfluenced by 
wind or tides by four heavy anchors and cables — two on the port and 
two on the starboard side — placed from 50 to 75 fathoms away from 
the barge. (For ball-joint see drawing). 

2d. The contractor is also required to bid on the following plan 
of submarine pipe: Instead of cast-iron, the pipe to consist of first- 
class lap- welded tubing, 16 in. in the clear in diameter, of ^ in. or 
in. best wrought-iron, of a tensile strength of not less than 50,000 lbs. 
The lap or weld to be as perfect as regards strength and tightness as 
the solid iron. 

The pipes to be thoroughly covered in and outside by a first-class 
covering of zinc galvanizing. 

— i6 — 

The bells and nipples to be of first-class cast-iron, of same material 
and workmanship as required for above mentioned cast-iron pipe, and 
thoroughly and tightly riveted to the tubing, and the same split and 
caulked against the casting. In this case the bell is cast hollow and 
not turned out, except the lower level and the entrance opening for 
the nipple-ball, there being 0.20 in. total play, or a radial play of 
in. all around the ball end. 

The ball is turned off to a perfect sphere, perfectly smooth, each 
l)ipe complete to be tested to 2co lbs. pressure per square inch. 

All pipes showing splits, leaks, flaws or bad workmanshii), to be 

The process of making joints and lowering pipe to be like the one 
above described for the cast iron pipe. The contractor to bid for a 
double line of this 16 in. pipe. 

As this i)ipe is very light compared with the above cast-iron 
pipe, it is i)ossible to lay both pipes at the same time, provided the 
apron is widened to 16 or 18 feet, so that the two pipes will lay no 
nearer than 12 or 14 ft. from center to center. The Si)ring Valley 
Water Works will paint or coat the pipes at their own e-xi^ense with a 
coating that they consider the best proof against salt water corrosion. 

3d. The contractor is also required to bid on the final and third 
plan of submarine pipe. The submarine line to consist of one 
wrought iron pipe made of straiglit courses of ,« boiler iron, best 
quality, same as above. 

Bells and ball ends (according to drawing) to be made and riveted 
on with the same perfect workmanship as specified for the 16 in. 

Rivets to be ys in., straight seams double, round seams single 
riveted, of such proportions and distances apart and laps as is speci- 
fied for the best of boiler work. 

All edges of plates on outside of pipe thoroughly chipped and 
caulked. Process of laying same as heretofore described. 

The Spring Valley Water Works will paint or coat the pipe with 
their own coating at their own expense. 

All iiipes to be tested to 200 lbs. pressure, and all pipes showing 
flaws or bad workmanship to be rejected. 

— I? — 


Inlet and Outlet Gates for Submarine Pipes. 

The contractor to provide and attach, both at the easterly and 
westerly terminus of the submarine pipe, two first-class i6in. gates, 
of best approved Spring Valley pattern, in case the double i6 in. line 
is adopted, or one first-class 22 in. gate of same pattern at each end 
of said pipe, provided the one 22 in. line is adopted. 

The contractor also to provide and attach, at either bay end of the 
36 in. pipe, a 12 in. first-class blow-off gate of above pattern, and for 
the terminus of the 36 in. pipe on the east side of the bay a 16 in. 
balanced safety valve, that will prevent any and all shocks and con- 
cussions on said easterly section of the 36 in. pipe in case the easterly 
gate or gates on the submarine pipes are being shut off. 

The Spring Valley Water Works to furnish all the iron and rivets 
required for the 36 in. pipe, also to do all the dipping, coating and 
painting of the 36 in. wrouglu-iron and the two 16 in. or one 22 in. 
wrought-iron submarine pipes, and the painting of the riveted joints 
in the ditch on the 36 in. pipe. 

The contractor, at his own expense, to furnish all materials and 
labor for cast or wrought-iron submarine pipes, to make and lay the 
same, also make and attach all fittings, as gates, blow-offs, air-valves, 
man-holes, safety-valves, etc.; also to dig the ditch, to transport and 
lay and connect the pipes and to fill the ditch, all of which as above 

In short, the contractor is to construct a continuous conduit as 
above described, which connects the above mentioned stone aque- 
duct near Vallejo's Mill with the Spring Valley Water Works 44-in. 
pipe near San Mateo, in every way in most perfect and workmanlike 

The entire work herein specified to be finished according to the 
above specifications and in com])Iele working order on or before 
March ist, 1888. 

The bidder to state his price per lineal foot separately. 

1. For manufacturing the 36 in. pipe of No. 9 iron and No. 7 
iron, per lineal foot. 

2. For laying and connecting the same in the ditch and on the 
bridges and trestle works. 

3. For digging the ditch, per cubic yard. 

— i8 — 

4. For digging the joint-lioics, per each joint-hole. 

5. For filling the ditch. 

6. For transporting the pipe to and along the ditch. 

7. For constructing the trestle-work. 

8. For manufacturing and attaching by the piece : 

a. Manhole. 

1). Air-valves. 

c. Blow-olifs. 

d. Blow-off gates. 

e. Gates for submarine pipes. 

f. Safety-valves, near east end of snbmarinc ])ipcs. 

The bidder furthermore to bid — 

9. For the furnishing of the above specified three kinds of sub- 
marine pipes, complete, with joints, as specified. 

10. For the transporting, testing and laying of the same across 
the bay, on the line specified and connecting them at the two termini 
with the 36 in. pipe. 

P'inally, the bidder to slate the sum total for which he will con- 
struct the entire conduit complete in running order and ready for 
service, according to the al)ove specifications and in the si)ecificd 

The payments for the above work to be made as follows : 50 per 
cent, of the contract price to be paid to the contractor at the end 
of each month for pipe delivered ; 25 per cent, additional to be 
paid for every one (i) mile of pipe laid and riveted together in 
the ditch with all connections and attachments complete. The 
remaining 25 per cent, to be paid after the entire pipe has stood the 
test under full working pressure for si.xty (60) consecutive days to 
the entire satisfaction of the said party of the first part and its 

Should heavy rains occur during the time specified for the com- 
pletion of the pii)e, which will delay the laying of the same, the 
Company will extend the time for its completion to correspond to 
the time so lost. 

Bids to be handed into the office of the Spring Valley Water 
Works before July 20th, 10 o'clock a.m., 1887.